The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 strain has spread from domestic poultry to a large number of species of free-ranging wild birds, including non-migratory birds and migratory birds that can travel thousands of kilometers each year. The regular contact and interaction between poultry and wild birds has increased the urgency of understanding wild bird diseases and the transmission mechanisms that exist between the poultry and wild bird sectors, with a particular emphasis on avian influenza. Monitoring techniques, surveillance, habitat use and migration patterns are all important aspects of wildlife and disease ecology that need to be better understood to gain insights into disease transmission between these sectors. This manual contains chapters on the basic ecology of avian influenza and wild birds, capture and marking techniques (ringing, color marking and satellite telemetry), disease sampling procedures, and field survey and monitoring procedures.--Publisher's description.
Avian Influenza provides the first comprehensive guide covering the full spectrum of this complex and increasingly high-profile disease, its history, and its treatment and control. All aspects of avian influenza are dealt with in depth, systematically covering biology, virology, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology, clinical medicine, and the control. The book fuses coverage of the latest discoveries in the basic sciences with a practical approach to dealing with the disease in a clinical setting, and providing instruction and guidance for veterinarians and government animal health officials encountering this disease in the field. Avian Influenza provides the reader with a global perspective, bringing together chapters written by leading animal health researchers and veterinarians with significant experience working with this disease. Providing a summary and synthesis of important data and research on this virus, its impact on both wild and domesticated birds, and approaches to controlling the spread of the disease, Avian Influenza will be an invaluable resource for all veterinarians, scientists, animal health professionals, and public health officials dealing with this virus. Covers full range of topics within avian influenza in one comprehensive and authoritative text Provides a summarization of peer-reviewed and empirical data on avian influenza viruses, the infection and diseases they cause Discusses strategies used in control of the disease Leading experts are drawn together to provide an international and multi-disciplinary perspective Fuses latest developments in basic scientific research with practical guidance on management of the disease
Avian influenza, sometimes avian flu, and commonly called bird flu, refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds". Of greatest concern is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). These influenza viruses occur naturally among birds. Wild birds world-wide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. However, avian influenza is very contagious among birds and can make some domesticated birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, very ill. Infected birds shed influenza virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and faeces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with contaminated secretions or excretions or with surfaces that are contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds. The risk from avian influenza is generally low for most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans. However, confirmed cases of human infection from several subtypes of avian influenza infection have been reported since 1997. The spread of avian influenza viruses from one ill person to another has been reported very rarely, and has been limited, inefficient and unsustained. This important book gathers the latest research from around the globe in this field.
Every year, between 4 and 20 percent of the world population catches some form of influenza. Influenza, or the flu, is an infection caused by a viruses, much like the common cold, but unlike the common cold, the flu, whether seasonal, avian, or swine, has killed millions around the world throughout recorded history. Advances in science are producing effective vaccines and medications to combat this disease, but the influenza virus continues to change. Readers will learn what the flu is and what it is not, what different types of flu exist, how to avoid infection, and what to do if they get the flu.
Avian influenza, or 'bird flu', is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza viruses causes two main forms of disease, distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The so-called 'low pathogenic' form commonly causes only mild symptoms (ruffled feathers, a drop in egg production) and may easily go undetected. The highly pathogenic form is far more dramatic. It spreads very rapidly through poultry flocks, causes disease affecting multiple internal organs, and has a mortality that can approach 100%, often within 48 hours.
"The purpose of this document is to provide brief guidelines on the sampling methods to use when conducting wildlife surveillance, or a morbidity / mortality investigation. Topics covered include animal handling, proper methods for collecting and transporting diagnostic samples related to investigation of avian diseases such as avian influenza, West Nile virus, and Newcastle disease."--Introd.
With the growing global fear of a major pandemic, avian influenza (AI) virus research has greatly increased in importance. In Avian Influenza Virus, an expert team of researchers and diagnosticians examine the fundamental, yet essential, virological methods for AI virus research and diagnostics as well as some of the newest molecular procedures currently used for basic and applied research. They present exciting, cutting-edge new methods that focus both on studying the virus itself and on work with avian hosts, an area greatly lacking in research.
Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle Disease (ND) are two devastating diseases of poultry, which cause losses to the poultry industry and influence the liveability of rural communities worldwide. Following the H5N1 epidemic they appear to be endemic at least in Asia, Eastern Europe, The Middle East and Africa. Particularly in case of AI outbreaks it is essential that infection is diagnosed promptly and that isolates are made available to the international scientific community. Currently, several organisations including OIE, FAO and the EC have organised training courses in affected areas. However, often these courses do not cover all aspects of AI/ND diagnosis but only certain aspects. This results in fragmented areas of knowledge and in the application of different diagnostic protocols in different parts of the world. The objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive approach to AI diagnosis ranging from the clinical elements that should trigger a suspicion in the field, to the post mortem technique, collection of samples, processing/ shipment of specimens, virological, serological and molecular diagnosis and guidelines for notification.
Over the past 20 years, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), specifically Eurasian H5N1 subtypes, caused economic losses to the poultry industry and sparked fears of a human influenza pandemic. Avian influenza virus (AIV) is widespread in wild bird populations in the low-pathogenicity form (LPAI), and wild birds are thought to be the reservoir for AIV. To date, however, nearly all predictive models of AIV focus on domestic poultry and HPAI H5N1 at a small country or regional scale. Clearly, there is a need and an opportunity to explore AIV in wild birds using data-mining and machine-learning techniques. I developed predictive models using the Random Forests algorithm to describe the ecological niche of avian influenza in wild birds. In "Chapter 2 - Predictive risk modeling of avian influenza around the Pacific Rim", I demonstrated that it was possible to separate an AIV-positivity signal from general surveillance effort. Cold winters, high temperature seasonality, and a long distance from coast were important predictors. In "Chapter 3 - A global model of avian influenza prediction in wild birds: the importance of northern regions", northern regions remained areas of high predicted occurrence even when using a global dataset of AIV. In surveillance data, the percentage of AIV-positive samples is typically very low, which can hamper machine-learning. For "Chapter 4 - Modeling avian influenza with Random Forests: under-sampling and model selection for unbalanced prevalence in surveillance data" I wrote custom code in R statistical programming language to evaluate a balancing algorithm, a model selection algorithm, and an under-sampling method for their effects on model accuracy. Repeated random sub-sampling was found to be the most reliable way to improved unbalanced datasets. In these models cold regions consistently bore the highest relative predicted occurrence scores for AIV-positivity and describe a niche for LPAI that is distinct from the niche for HPAI in domestic poultry. These studies represent a novel, initial attempt at constructing models for LPAI in wild birds and demonstrated high predictive power.
Contents: Guidance for: Poultry Employees; Animal Handlers; Lab. Employees; Healthcare Workers; Food Handlers; Airport Personnel; Travelers on Temporary Work Assignment Abroad; U.S. Employees Stationed Abroad; Others That May Be at Risk; Employee Training; Appendices: Worldwide Occurrence of the H5N1 Virus; Background on the Biology of Influenza Viruses; Genetic Variations in H5N1 Strains and Implications for Human Health; Survival and Inactivation of Influenza A Viruses, incl. H5N1; Transmiss. of the H5N1 Virus; Symptoms and Outcomes of H5N1 Infection in Hospitalized Patients; Importation Ban on Birds from Countries Affected by the H5N1 Virus; and History of Human Influenza Pandemics.
Avian influenza is a highly contagious viral disease, characterized by intense circulation in the wild waterbird reservoirs, with periodical introductions into the domestic poultry sector. AI viruses have been the source of devastating economic losses in the poultry industry over the last three decades, and have become a major veterinary and public health concern due to their zoonotic potential. The most emblematic illustration of this impact has been the emergence of the HPAI H5N1 virus in southern China in the mid-1990s, followed by its continental spread across East and Southeast Asia, and the unprecedented epidemics recorded in 2003–2004. More recently (from 2014 to 2017), several subtypes of HPAI (including H5N1, H5N6, H5N8) emerged in East Asia and spread intercontinentally, stressing the crucial role of this geographical hotspot as a source of new HPAI subtypes. The international dimension and the difficulty to effectively control those epidemics highlight the need for a global approach to HPAI surveillance and a comprehensive knowledge on epidemiology and patterns of the disease. This Research Topic aims at contributing to fill this gap. It includes ten papers which supplement the knowledge of the epidemiology of AI and offer new approaches on control strategies in various regions of the world.
The book is written in a very simple and lucid manner so that everybody can read and understand very easily. The book is useful for scientist, teachers, students, officers, diagnosticians and general public as bird flu has become a hot and burning topic now-a-days and everybody will get lot of information about it. This book will provide information on the history, etiology, Pathogenesis, transmission, epidemiology, diagnosis and control of the bird flu. Besides, the receptors of influenza viruses, susceptibility of influenza Viruses to physical and chemical agent, recent major outbreaks of avian influenza, influenza pandemics, collection and dispatch of materials for diagnosis of bird flu, avian influenza in wild birds and methods of killing of poultry in the event of an outbreak have been dealt with. Contents Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: History; Chapter 3: Etiology; Chapter 4: Pathogenesis; Chapter 5: Receptor of Influenza Viruses; Chapter 6: Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Influenza; Chapter 7: Virus and the Disease; Chapter 8: Susceptibility to Physical and Chemical Agents; Chapter 9: Ecology; Chapter 10: Incidences and Distribution; Chapter 11: Incubation Period, Transmission and Epidemiology; Chapter 12: Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (LPAI) and High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza (HPAI): Symptoms and Lesions; Chapter 13: Transmission of Influenza Virus between Species; Chapter 14: Criteria for Classifying the Avian Influenza Viruses into HPAI and LPAI; Chapter 15: Influenza Pandemics; Chapter 16: Recent Major Outbreaks of Avian Influenza; Chapter 17: Characteristics of Pandemic Influenza Viruses and Characteristics of 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong Influenza Virus; Chapter 18: Human Health Implications; Chapter Treatment of Bird Flu Infections in Humans/Anti-viral Agents; Chapter 20: Avian Influenza and Human Death; Chapter 21: Collection of Samples and Diagnosis of Avian Influenza; Chapter 22: Prevention, Control and Eradication; Chapter 23: Methods for Killing Poultry in the Event of an Avian Influenza Outbreaks; Chapter 24: Avian Influenza in Wild Birds; Chapter 25: Avian Influenza in Tigers and Leopards; Chapter 26: Laboratories Authorized to Test Samples Suspected for Avian Influenza; Chapter 27: Vaccines Against Avian Influenza; Chapter 28: Avian Influenza at a Glance