More than 90% of wildfires are caused by human activity, but other causes include lighting, drought, wind and changing weather conditions, underground coal fires, and even volcanic activity. Wildfire Hazards, Risks, and Disasters, one of nine volumes in the Elsevier Hazards and Disasters series, provides a close and detailed examination of wildfires and measures for more thorough and accurate monitoring, prediction, preparedness, and prevention. It takes a geo-scientific and environmental approach to the topic while also discussing the impacts of human-induced causes such as deforestation, debris burning and arson—underscoring the multi-disciplinary nature of the topic. It presents several international case studies that discuss the historical, social, cultural and ecological aspects of wildfire risk management in countries with a long history of dealing with this hazard (e.g., USA, Australia) and in countries (e.g., Taiwan) where wildfire hazards represent a new and growing threat to the social and ecological landscape. Puts the contributions of environmental scientists, social scientists, climatologists, and geoscientists at your fingertips Arms you with the latest research on causality, social and societal impacts, economic impacts, and the multi-dimensional nature of wildfire mitigation, preparedness, and recovery Features a broad range of tables, figures, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs to aid in the retention of key concepts Discusses steps for prevention and mitigation of wildfires, one of the most expensive and complex geo-hazards in the world.
Now in its 149th edition, The Statesman's Yearbook continues to be the reference work of choice for accurate and reliable information on every country in the world. Covering political, economic, social and cultural aspects, the Yearbook is also available online for subscribing institutions: www.statesmansyearbook.com .
The oomycete genus Phytophthora represents one of the most notorious groups of tree pathogens in natural and semi-natural forest ecosystems. Since the discovery in the 1960s of the invasive P. cinnamomi, threatening some of the world’s richest plant communities in Australia, numerous Phytophthora diseases have been reported on forest trees worldwide, which were previously unknown to science. The most notable examples include the oak and beech declines triggered by different Phytophthora spp. in Europe and North America, the findings of sudden oak death and sudden larch death caused by P. ramorum in the Western USA and the U.K., respectively, and the association of P. austrocedri with mal del ciprés in Argentina and juniper decline in the U.K. All these epidemic events are driven by exotic invasive Phytophthora species, introduced through infested nursery plants from their native overseas environments. In recent years, many independent surveys have studied the diversity of Phytophthora species and the diseases they are causing across a diverse range of forests and other natural ecosystems. This Special Issue presents papers on Phytophthora surveys performed in different biogeographic regions and addresses the pathways, and ecological and economic impacts of these invasive forest pathogens.
Microbial carbonates (microbialites) are remarkable sedimentary deposits because they have the longest geological range of any type of biogenic limestones, they form in the greatest range of different sedimentary environments, they oxygenated the Earth’s atmosphere, and they produce and store large volumes of hydrocarbons. This Special Publication provides significant contributions at a pivotal time in our understanding of microbial carbonates, when their economic importance has become established and the results of many research programmes are coming to fruition. It is the first book to focus on the economic aspects of microbialites and in particular the giant pre-salt discoveries offshore Brazil. In addition it contains papers on the processes involved in formation of both modern and ancient microbialites and the diversity of style in microbial carbonate buildups, structures and fabrics in both marine and non-marine settings and throughout the geological record.