The First World War did not end in November 1918. In Russia and Eastern Europe it finished up to a year earlier, and both there and elsewhere in Europe it triggered conflicts that lasted down to 1923. Paramilitary formations were prominent in this continuation of the war. They had some features of formal military organizations, but were used in opposition to the regular military as an instrument of revolution or as an adjunct or substitute for military forces when these were unable by themselves to put down a revolution (whether class or national). Paramilitary violence thus arose in different contexts. It was an important aspect of the violence unleashed by class revolution in Russia. It structured the counter-revolution in central and Eastern Europe, including Finland and Italy, which reacted against a mythic version of Bolshevik class violence in the name of order and authority. It also shaped the struggles over borders and ethnicity in the new states that replaced the multi-national empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. It was prominent on all sides in the wars for Irish independence. In many cases, paramilitary violence was charged with political significance and acquired a long-lasting symbolism and influence. War in Peace explores the differences and similarities between these various kinds of paramilitary violence within one volume for the first time. It thereby contributes to our understanding of the difficult transitions from war to peace. It also helps to re-situate the Great War in a longer-term context and to explain its enduring impact.
The war in Iraq is over, and we are now facing its aftermath. The searching and divisive questions raised for the churches by the invasion of Iraq linger on. Are there "just wars"? What does the Bible teach about war and violence? What constitutes patriotism when one's nation is at war? Is there theological justification for wars of self-defense or liberation? The author explores these questions to facilitate ongoing conversation in faith communities. Surveying instances of violence in many regions of the globe, often involving confrontation between religious communities, Ariarajah examines what violence does to those who perpetrate it on others. Moving beyond simplistic notions of good and evil in world affairs, he calls on peoples of faith to counter terror in all its forms through the creation of an "axis of peace".
Reports from war zones often note the obscene victimization of women, who are frequently raped, tortured, beaten, and pressed into sexual servitude. Yet this reign of terror against women not only occurs during exceptional moments of social collapse, but during peacetime too. As this powerful book argues, violence against women should be understood as a systemic problem—one for which the state must be held accountable. The twelve essays in Gender Violence in Peace and War present a continuum of cases where the state enables violence against women—from state-sponsored torture to lax prosecution of sexual assault. Some contributors uncover buried histories of state violence against women throughout the twentieth century, in locations as diverse as Ireland, Indonesia, and Guatemala. Others spotlight ongoing struggles to define the state’s role in preventing gendered violence, from domestic abuse policies in the Russian Federation to anti-trafficking laws in the United States. Bringing together cutting-edge research from political science, history, gender studies, anthropology, and legal studies, this collection offers a comparative analysis of how the state facilitates, legitimates, and perpetuates gender violence worldwide. The contributors also offer vital insights into how states might adequately protect women’s rights in peacetime, as well as how to intervene when a state declares war on its female citizens.
In 1945, Germany experienced the greatest outburst of deadly violence that the world has ever seen. Germany 1945 examines the country's emergence from the most terrible catastrophe in modern history. When the Second World War ended, millions had been murdered; survivors had lost their families; cities and towns had been reduced to rubble and were littered with corpses. Yet people lived on, and began rebuilding their lives in the most inauspicious of circumstances. Bombing, military casualties, territorial loss, economic collapse and the processes of denazification gave Germans a deep sense of their own victimhood, which would become central to how they emerged from the trauma of total defeat, turned their backs on the Third Reich and its crimes, and focused on a transition to relative peace. Germany's return to humanity and prosperity is the hinge on which Europe's twentieth century turned. For years we have concentrated on how Europe slid into tyranny, violence, war and genocide; this book describes how humanity began to get back out.
Reflections on Leo Tolstoy’s “War and Peace,” these original essays examine various facets of violence and human efforts to create peace. Religion is deeply involved in both processes: ones that produce violence and ones that seek to create harmony. In the war on terror, radical religion is often seen to be a major cause of inter-group violence. However, these essays show a much more complex picture in which religion is often on the receiving end of conflict that has its origin in the actions of the state in response to tensions between majorities and minorities. As this volume demonstrates, the more public religion becomes, the more likely it is to be imbricated in communal strife.
Peace, Culture, and Violence is a collection of essays that examine the forms of violence that permeate everyday life and explore sources of non-violence by considering topics such as thug culture, language, hegemony, police violence, war, terrorism, gender, and anti-Semitism.
This book investigates the relationships between political violence, social violence and economic violence using examples from South Africa, Northern Ireland, Lebanon and Syria. It examines the cultural impact of war and argues that a culture of violence can explain the high levels of violence which are frequently found in post-war societies.
The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict, a three-volume set written by more than 200 eminent contributors from around the world, takes advantage of increasing, worldwide awareness in the public, private, commercial, and academic sectors about manifestations of violence in all segments of society. While the contributors do not use these volumes to make specific arguments, they do describe and clarify the developments in thought that have led to current theories about and positions on violence and peace. Our reviewers consistently note that while many in-depth studies of war, peace, and aggression exist, the attendant specialization keeps scholars from learning about related fields. No publication competing with the Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict can satisfy their need for a vast introductory work to such a diverse and socially-important field. This major work includes more than 190 multidisciplinary articles with over 1,000 cross-references and more than 2,000 bibliography entries for further reading which are arranged alphabetically for easy access. More than 190 multidisciplinary articles with over 1,000 cross-references Article outline and glossary of key terms begin each article Entries arranged alphabetically for easy access Three-volume set with subject index of over 750 entries Articles written by more than 200 eminent contributors from around the world
This volume of collected essays reflects on various aspects of language, text, and interpretations of war and peace in the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Second Temple Jewish literature, with special close attention set on the Qumran "War Scroll."
This volume of collected essays reflects on various aspects of language, text, and interpretations of war and peace in the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Second Temple Jewish literature, with special close attention set on the Qumran War Scroll.
Reflection on Violence, War, and Peace: A New and Early Approach to Violence Prevention is a reflection on human conditions and our relationships with each other and with the natural world. In this book, you will discover: -How Genes, evolution, and the environment interact with each other to determine how we perceive and react to threats. -Why people are willing to trade their individual freedom and liberty for safety and security. -Why some young westernized Muslims are attracted to Isis. -How individuals, groups, and institutions exploit fear. -How advances in communication technology and the Internet are increasing cross-cultural interaction to unknown end. -How your brain determines who you are and how it constructs a reality for you. -How important it is to expose your child to divers life-enhancing skills and experiences during childhood. -Ideas as to how human violent behavior and war can be prevented, and cooperation, creativity, and coexistence can be enhanced.
The author shows how anthropology--with its expansive time frame and comparative orientation--can provide unique insights into the nature of war and the potential for peace. Challenging the traditional view that humans are by nature primarily violent and warlike, he argues that along with the capacity for aggression humans also possess a strong ability to prevent, limit, and resolve conflicts without violence. Raising philosophy of science issues, the author shows that cultural beliefs asserting the inevitability of violence and war can bias our interpretations, affect our views of ourselves, and may even blind us to the possibility of achieving security without war. He constructs a biosocial argument that challenges a host of commonly held assumptions. The book includes ethnographic examples from around the globe, findings from his research among the Zapotec of Mexico, and results of cross-cultural studies on warfare. In showing that conflict resolution exists across cultures and by documenting the existence of numerous peaceful societies, it demonstrates that dealing with conflict without violence is not merely a utopian dream. The book also explores several highly publicized and interesting controversies, including his critique of Margaret Mead's writings on Samoan warfare; Napoleon Chagnon's claims about the Yanomamö; and ongoing evolutionary debates about whether "hunter-gatherers" are peaceful or warlike.
This book analyzes the evolution of Russian military thought and how Russia's current thinking about war is reflected in recent crises. While other books describe current Russian practice, Oscar Jonsson provides the long view to show how Russian military strategic thinking has developed from the Bolshevik Revolution to the present. He closely examines Russian primary sources including security doctrines and the writings and statements of Russian military theorists and political elites. What Jonsson reveals is that Russia's conception of the very nature of war is now changing, as Russian elites see information warfare and political subversion as the most important ways to conduct contemporary war. Since information warfare and political subversion are below the traditional threshold of armed violence, this has blurred the boundaries between war and peace. Jonsson also finds that Russian leaders have, particularly since 2011/12, considered themselves to be at war with the United States and its allies, albeit with non-violent means. This book provides much needed context and analysis to be able to understand recent Russian interventions in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, how to deter Russia on the eastern borders of NATO, and how the West must also learn to avoid inadvertent escalation.