This is the first book to combine classical vehicle dynamics with electronic control. The equation-based presentation of the theory behind vehicle dynamics enables readers to develop a thorough understanding of the key attribute to both a vehicle's driveability and its active safety. Supported by MATLAB tools, the key areas that affect vehicle dynamics are explored including tire mechanics, the steering system, vehicle roll, traction and braking, 4WS and vehicle dynamics, vehicle dynamics by vehicle and human control, and controllabiliy. As a professional reference volume, this book is an essential addition to the resources available to anyone working in vehicle design and development. Written by a leading authority in the field (who himself has considerable practical experience), the book has a unique blend of theory and practice that will be of immense value in this applications based field. Get a thorough understand of why vehicles respond they way they do with a complete treatment of vehicle dynamics from theory to application Full of case studies and worked examples using MATLAB/Simulink Covers all variables of vehicle dynamics including tire and vehicle motion, control aspects, human control and external disturbances
This textbook covers handling and performance of both road and race cars. Mathematical models of vehicles are developed always paying attention to state the relevant assumptions and to provide explanations for each step. This innovative approach provides a deep, yet simple, analysis of the dynamics of vehicles. The reader will soon achieve a clear understanding of the subject, which will be of great help both in dealing with the challenges of designing and testing new vehicles and in tackling new research topics. The book deals with several relevant topics in vehicle dynamics that are not discussed elsewhere and this new edition includes thoroughly revised chapters, with new developments, and many worked exercises. Praise for the previous edition: Great book! It has changed drastically our approach on many topics. We are now using part of its theory on a daily basis to constantly improve ride and handling performances. --- Antonino Pizzuto, Head of Chassis Development Group at Hyundai Motor Europe Technical Center Astonishingly good! Everything is described in a very compelling and complete way. Some parts use a different approach than other books. --- Andrea Quintarelli, Automotive Engineer
A text which is aimed at tyre and vehicle manufacturers. Topics discussed in the book are the pneumatic tyre, axis systems and equations of motion, the control and stability of basic rigid vehicles, suspension characteristics and control and stability of articulated vehicles.
This book covers the principles and applications of vehicle handling dynamics from an advanced perspective in depth. The methods required to analyze and optimize vehicle handling dynamics are presented, including tire compound dynamics, vehicle planar dynamics, vehicle roll dynamics, full vehicle dynamics, and in-wheel motor vehicle dynamics. The provided vehicle dynamic model is capable of investigating drift, sliding, and other over-limit vehicle maneuvers. This is an ideal book for postgraduate and research students and engineers in mechanical, automotive, transportation, and ground vehicle engineering.
Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicles. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability control has been enhanced. The use of feedback control systems on automobiles is growing rapidly. This book is intended to serve as a useful resource to researchers who work on the development of such control systems, both in the automotive industry and at universities. The book can also serve as a textbook for a graduate level course on Vehicle Dynamics and Control.
The primary objective of this research is to develop an integrated system engineering methodology for the conceptual design of vehicle handling dynamics early on in the product development process. A systems engineering-based simulation framework is developed that connects subjective, customer-relevant handling expectations and manufacturers' brand attributes to higher-level objective vehicle engineering targets and consequently breaks these targets down into subsystem-level requirements and component-level design specifications. The proposed simulation-based design methodology for the conceptual design of vehicle handling characteristics is implemented using decomposition-based Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) techniques and evolutionary, multi-objective optimization algorithms coupled within the systems engineering framework. This work has contributed towards development of a unique approach to integrate market research into the vehicle handling design process. It utilizes brand essence information derived from market research for the derivation and balancing of vehicle level targets, and thereby guides the chassis design direction using relative brand attributes weights.
Essentials of Vehicle Dynamics explains the essential mathematical basis of vehicle dynamics in a concise and clear way, providing engineers and students with the qualitative understanding of vehicle handling performance needed to underpin chassis-related research and development. Without a sound understanding of the mathematical tools and principles underlying the complex models in vehicle dynamics, engineers can end up with errors in their analyses and assumptions, leading to costly mistakes in design and virtual prototyping activities. Author Joop P. Pauwelussen looks to rectify this by drawing on his 15 years’ experience of helping students and professionals understand the vehicle as a dynamic system. He begins as simply as possible before moving on to tackle models of increasing complexity, emphasizing the critical role played by tire-road contact and the different analysis tools required to consider non-linear dynamical systems. Providing a basic mathematical background that is ideal for students or those with practical experience who are struggling with the theory, Essentials of Vehicle Dynamics is also intended to help engineers from different disciplines, such as control and electronic engineering, move into the automotive sector or undertake multi-disciplinary vehicle dynamics work. Focuses on the underlying mathematical fundamentals of vehicle dynamics, equipping engineers and students to grasp and apply more complex concepts with ease. Written to help engineers avoid the costly errors in design and simulation brought about by incomplete understanding of modeling tools and approaches. Includes exercises to help readers test their qualitative understanding and explain results in physical and vehicle dynamics terms.
Arrangements (e.g., method, apparatus, computer-readable non-transitory media embodying a program) for compensating for understeer or oversteer behavior in a vehicle having a fully active suspension, including: determining whether an understeer or oversteer condition exists; determining a compensation torque needed to correct the understeer or oversteer condition; and generating the compensation torque by using the fully active suspension to shift tire loads between tires.
This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected.The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynamics, and vehicle roll dynamics Vehicle Vibration: covers applied vibrations, vehicle vibrations, and suspension optimization Vehicle dynamics concepts are covered in detail, with a concentration on their practical uses. Also provided are related theorems and formal proofs, along with case examples. Readers appreciate the user-friendly presentation of the science and engineering of the mechanical aspects of vehicles, and learn how to analyze and optimize vehicles’ handling and ride dynamics.
Handling characteristics of hypothetical electric vehicle configurations were studied by applying available analytical methods. Elementary linearized models were used in addition to a highly sophisticated vehicle dynamics computer simulation technique. Physical properties of specific EV's were defined for various battery and powertrain packaging approaches applied to a subcompact base car. The group of configurations considered gave a wide range of weight distribution and inertial properties which characterize a generic class of EV's. Computer simulations of structured maneuvers were performed for predicting handling qualities in the normal driving range and during various extreme conditions related to accident avoidance. Results consistently indicate that an EV with forward weight bias will possess handling qualities superior to a comparable EV that is rear-heavy or equally balanced; the handling differences become more pronounced as yaw moment of inertia is increased. Rear-heavy EV's were found to be particularly susceptible to excessive sideslip, long response times and undesirable phase lags. Results also demonstrate the importance of properly matching tires, suspension systems and brake system front/rear torque proportioning to a given EV configuration during the design stage. The methodology employed in this study can provide valuable guidance for developing electric (and other) vehicles which have satisfactory handling qualities.
Each year in the United States, thousands of lives are lost as a result of loss of control crashes. Production driver assistance systems such as electronic stability control (ESC) have been shown to be highly effective in preventing many of these automotive crashes, yet these systems rely on a sensor suite that yields limited information about the road conditions and vehicle motion. Furthermore, ESC systems rely on gains and thresholds that are tuned to yield good performance without feeling overly restrictive to the driver. This dissertation presents an alternative approach to providing stabilization assistance to the driver which leverages additional information about the vehicle and road that may be obtained with advanced estimation techniques. This new approach is based on well-known and robust vehicle models and utilizes phase plane analysis techniques to describe the limits of stable vehicle handling, alleviating the need for hand tuning of gains and thresholds. The resulting state space within the computed handling boundaries is referred to as a safe handling envelope. In addition to the boundaries being straightforward to calculate, this approach has the benefit of offering a way for the designer of the system to directly adjust the controller to accomodate the preferences of different drivers. A model predictive control structure capable of keeping the vehicle within the safe handling boundaries is the final component of the envelope control system. This dissertation presents the design of a controller that is capable of smoothly and progressively augmenting the driver steering input to enforce the boundaries of the envelope. The model predictive control formulation provides a method for making trade-offs between enforcing the boundaries of the envelope, minimizing disruptive interventions, and tracking the driver's intended trajectory. Experiments with a steer-by-wire test vehicle demonstrate that the model predictive envelope control system is capable of operating in conjunction with a human driver to prevent loss of control of the vehicle while yielding a predictable vehicle trajectory. These experiments considered both the ideal case of state information from a GPS/INS system and an a priori friction estimate as well as a real-world implementation estimating the vehicle states and friction coefficient from steering effort and inertial sensors. Results from the experiments demonstrated a controller that is tolerant of vehicle and tire parameterization errors and works well over a wide range of conditions. When real time sensing of the states and friction properties is enabled, the results show that coupling of the controller and estimator is possible and the model predictive control structure provides a mechanism for minimizing undesirable coupled dynamics through tuning of intuitive controller parameters. The model predictive control structure presented in this dissertation may also be considered as a general framework for vehicle control in conjunction with a human driver. The structure utilized for envelope control may also be used to restrict other vehicle states for safety and stability. Results are presented in this dissertation to show that a model predictive controller can coordinate a secondary actuator to alter the planar states and reduce the energy transferred into the roll modes of the vehicle. The systematic approach to vehicle stabilization presented in this dissertation has the potential to improve the design methodology for future systems and form the basis for the inclusion of more advanced functions as sensing and computing capabilities improve. The envelope control system presented here offers the opportunity to advance the state of the art in stabilization assistance and provides a way to help drivers of all skill levels maintain control of their vehicle.
Multibody Systems Approach to Vehicle Dynamics aims to bridge a gap between the subject of classical vehicle dynamics and the general-purpose computer-based discipline known as multibody systems analysis (MBS). The book begins by describing the emergence of MBS and providing an overview of its role in vehicle design and development. This is followed by separate chapters on the modeling, analysis, and post-processing capabilities of a typical simulation software; the modeling and analysis of the suspension system; tire force and moment generating characteristics and subsequent modeling of these in an MBS simulation; and the modeling and assembly of the rest of the vehicle, including the anti-roll bars and steering systems. The final two chapters deal with the simulation output and interpretation of results, and a review of the use of active systems to modify the dynamics in modern passenger cars. This book intended for a wide audience including not only undergraduate, postgraduate and research students working in this area, but also practicing engineers in industry who require a reference text dealing with the major relevant areas within the discipline. Full of practical examples and applications Uses industry standard ADAMS software based applications Guides readers from modelling suspension movement through to full vehicle models able to perform handling manoeuvres
1. Tyre characteristics and vehicle handling and stability. 2. Basic tyre modeling considerations. 3. Theory of steady-state slip force and moment generation. 4. Semi-empirical tyre models. 5. Non-steady state out-of-plane string-based tyre models. 6. Theory of the wheel shimmy phenomonen. 7. Single contact point transient tyre models. 8. Applications of transient tyre models. 9. Short wavelength immediate frequency tyre model. 10. Dynamic tyre response to short road unevennness. 11. Motorcycle dynamics. 12. Tyre steady-state and dynamic test facilities. 13. Outlines of three advanced dynamic tyre models.