This text provides a look into Islam as many writers delve into their own studies of faith, and how Islam and its culture can serve as a bridge connecting it to other faiths for a more understanding world.
This book provides an introductory theoretical foundation of the ethics embedded in Islamic economics and finance, and it shows how this ethical framework could pave the way to economic and social justice. It demonstrates how Islamic finance—a risk-sharing and asset-backed finance—has embedded universal values, ethical rules, and virtues, and how these qualities may be applied to a supposedly value-neutral social science to influence policy-making. This book argues that ethical and responsible finance, such as Islamic finance, could lead the efforts to achieve sustainable economic development. Iqbal and Mirakhor then conduct a comparative analysis of Islamic and conventional financial systems and present Islamic finance as an alternative that can address today’s growing problems of inequality, social injustice, financial repression, unethical leadership, and lack of opportunity to share prosperity.
As a world religion Islam is based on a highly abstract and absolute notion of the transcendent, which its followers establish and celebrate, in a seemingly contradictory fashion, at very specific sites: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, and in the vast and complex landscapes of mosques and Muslim saints' shrines around the world. Sacred locality has thus become a paradigm for the relationship between the human and the transcendent, a model for urban planning, regional networks, imaginary spaces, and spiritual hierarchies alike. This importance of saintly places has, however, become increasingly complicated and troubled by reformist currents within Islam, on the one hand, and the emergence of modern archeology and anthropology, on the other. While they have often tended to posit the local in opposition to the universal, in this volume islamologists, anthropologists, and sociologists offer new ways of thinking about the local, the place, and the conceptual landscapes and spaces of saints.
The research examines Pan-Islamic movement in Russia between 1905-1930, the main factors behind its appearance, peculiarities and its impact on other leading ideologies of that time such as Pan-Turkism, Pan-Turanism and Muslim National Communism through analyzing the official documents from Tsarist and Soviet sources, records of the All-Russian Muslim Congresses between 1905-1924, as well as the thoughts and activities of Russia's Muslim intellectuals, mainly 'Abd al-Rashīd Ibrahimov, Musa Jārullāh, Ismail Gaspralı and Mir Said Sultan-Galiev. In order to examine the works of Ibrahimov, Jārullāh and Gaspralı, the researcher adopted an inductive and textual analysis method. The research found a huge gap between the official portrait of Pan-Islam, designed by the Tsarist and then enriched by the Soviet authorities, and its real appearance in Russia. The Tsarist gendarmerie and secret service departments defined the entire intellectual, religious, social, educational and political activities of Russia's Muslims after 1905 as 'Pan-Islamism' or 'Pan-Turkism,' an anti-government movement. Yet, as the research exposes, Pan-Islamism in the thoughts of Russia's Muslim intellectuals was formulated as a peaceful ideology, no more than emphasizing the necessity for fraternity and solidarity among all Muslims of the world. Also, the research suggests that the extensive mushrooming of the call for Muslim unity at the beginning of the twentieth century in Russia should not be studied in isolation from the fundamental Islamic thoughts and universal values of Islam such as solidarity, justice, brotherhood and responsibility of the spiritual and political leaders toward other Muslims. Pan-Islamism in a Russian context was an attempt of local Muslims to reinstate the political dimensions of Islam in order to strengthen their legal, economic, religious, social and cultural positions against the danger emanating from Russian Imperialism. Moreover, it establishes that the consideration of Pan-Islamism as an interim period in the universal ideological development of nation formation process and the rise of nationalism is not applicable to the Russian case. Up to the 1920s, the large-scale movement towards unity of all layers of Muslim society of Russia went parallel with the growth of nationalism among the people, who claimed to be firstly Muslim, then Turkic. Also, there was never, in the Russian case, a natural decline in the hold of religion due to the rise of ethnic national awareness. Lastly, the study underlines that the Western classical approach of 'modeling' Europe for every small or big event that occurred in other parts of the world led to the distortion of the original shape of Pan-Islamism in the Western (Russian) scholarship. Thus the research emphasizes on the need for an alternative approach for studying Pan-Islamism, as well as other political and social developments occurring in the Muslim world.
The central theme of the book is Islamʹs past, present and future dialogues with other cultures and civilizations. Islam has made a positive and major contribution to the development of the idea of a universal human civilization and to the enrichment of global human culture through its constructive civilizational engagement with the rest of the world. The author argues that, on the basis of its past achievements, Islam has both the necessary sense of civilizational mission and sufficient spiritual and intellectual means to conduct a world-wide conversation not only with its sister religions in the Abrahamic family, namely Judaism and Christianity but also with Far Eastern religions like Confucianism, Buddhism and even Shintoism in the pursuit of a truly universal civilization and a global ethics based on shared spiritual, moral and ethical values. -- Back cover.
The importance of studying past and present relationships between Islam and Christianity as well as between Muslims and Christians of different persuasions has now become generally recognized. The present volume of scholarly studies focusses on changes which have occurred in these relationships during the last forty years. The papers examine new Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox views of Islam and a broad variety of views of Christianity held by Muslims from India, Iran, North Africa, and the Near East, including some "fundamentalist" authors in Egypt and Lebanon. The book contains a moving testimony from a Muslim intellectual in Sarajevo written during the siege of the city. Nearly all contributions were discussed at the Cret Berard (Switzerland) symposium in April 1995.
This empirical study of Muslim communities on the northern fringes of Europe is a fine example from the field comparative sociology of religion, providing thought-provoking insights into the ongoing discussion on religious minorities in a multicultural European society.