This book shows how disinformation spread by partisan organizations and media platforms undermines institutional legitimacy on which authoritative information depends.
The Disinformation Age, beginning in the present and going back to the American colonial period, constructs an original historical explanation for the current political crisis and the reasons the two major political parties cannot address it effectively. Commentators inside and outside academia have described this crisis with various terms — income inequality, the disappearance of the middle-class, the collapse of the two-party system, and the emergence of a corporate oligarchy. While this book uses such terminology, it uniquely provides a unifying explanation for the current state of the union by analyzing the seismic rupture of political rhetoric from political reality used within discussion of these issues. In advancing this analysis, the book provides a term for this rupture, Disinformation, which it defines not as planned propaganda but as the inevitable failure of the language of American Exceptionalism to correspond to actual history, even as the two major political parties continue to deploy this language. Further, in its final chapter this book provides a way out of this political cul-de-sac, what it terms "the limits of capitalism’s imagination," by "thinking from a different place" that is located in the theory and practice of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas.
In this book established researchers draw on a range of theoretical and empirical perspectives to examine social media’s impact on American politics. Chapters critically examine activism in the digital age, fake news, online influence, messaging tactics, news transparency and authentication, consumers’ digital habits and ultimately the societal impacts that continue to be created by combining social media and politics. Through this book readers will better understand and approach with questions such as: • How exactly and why did social media become a powerful factor in politics? • What responsibilities do social networks have in the proliferation of factually wrong and hate-filled messages? Or should individuals be held accountable? • What are the state-of-the-art of computational techniques for measuring and determining social media's impact on society? • What role does online activism play in today’s political arena? • What does the potent combination of social media and politics truly mean for the future of democracy? The insights and debates found herein provide a stronger understanding of the core issues and steer us toward improved curriculum and research aimed at a better democracy. Democracy in the Disinformation Age: Influence and Activism in American Politics will appeal to both undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as academics with an interest in areas including political science, media studies, mass communication, PR, and journalism.
In this book established researchers draw on a range of theoretical and empirical perspectives to examine social media's impact on American politics. Chapters critically examine activism in the digital age, fake news, online influence, messaging tactics, news transparency and authentication, consumers' digital habits and ultimately the societal impacts that continue to be created by combining social media and politics. Through this book readers will better understand and approach with questions such as: - How exactly and why did social media become a powerful factor in politics? - What responsibilities do social networks have in the proliferation of factually wrong and hate-filled messages? Or should individuals be held accountable? - What are the state-of-the-art of computational techniques for measuring and determining social media's impact on society? - What role does online activism play in today's political arena? - What does the potent combination of social media and politics truly mean for the future of democracy? The insights and debates found herein provide a stronger understanding of the core issues and steer us toward improved curriculum and research aimed at a better democracy. Democracy in the Disinformation Age: Influence and Activism in American Politics will appeal to both undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as academics with an interest in areas including political science, media studies, mass communication, PR, and journalism.
Facebook, a platform created by undergraduates in a Harvard dorm room, has transformed the ways millions of people consume news, understand the world, and participate in the political process. Despite taking on many of journalism’s traditional roles, Facebook and other platforms, such as Twitter and Google, have presented themselves as tech companies—and therefore not subject to the same regulations and ethical codes as conventional media organizations. Challenging such superficial distinctions, Philip M. Napoli offers a timely and persuasive case for understanding and governing social media as news media, with a fundamental obligation to serve the public interest. Social Media and the Public Interest explores how and why social media platforms became so central to news consumption and distribution as they met many of the challenges of finding information—and audiences—online. Napoli illustrates the implications of a system in which coders and engineers drive out journalists and editors as the gatekeepers who determine media content. He argues that a social media–driven news ecosystem represents a case of market failure in what he calls the algorithmic marketplace of ideas. To respond, we need to rethink fundamental elements of media governance based on a revitalized concept of the public interest. A compelling examination of the intersection of social media and journalism, Social Media and the Public Interest offers valuable insights for the democratic governance of today’s most influential shapers of news.
Learning how to tell news from fake news from fake fake news: An “important and timely” book on protecting ourselves, and society, from the infodemic (Library Journal). We have billions of bytes of data at our fingertips. But how much of it is misinformation—or even disinformation? A lot of it is, and your search engine can’t tell the difference. As a result, an avalanche of misinformation threatens to overwhelm the discourse we so desperately need to address complex social problems such as climate change, the food and water crises, biodiversity collapse, and emerging threats to public health. This book provides an inoculation against the misinformation epidemic by cultivating scientific habits of mind. Anyone can do it—indeed, everyone must do it if our species is to survive on this crowded and finite planet. This survival guide supplies an essential set of apps for the prefrontal cortex while making science both accessible and entertaining. It will dissolve your fear of numbers, demystify graphs, and elucidate the key concepts of probability, all while celebrating the precise use of language and logic. David Helfand, one of our nation’s leading astronomers and science educators, has taught scientific habits of mind to generations in the classroom, where he continues to wage a provocative battle against sloppy thinking and the encroachment of misinformation. “Provides a vital antidote to the ills of misinformation by teaching systematic and rigorous scientific reasoning.” —The Times Literary Supplement
No one is who they pretend to be.Jenifer Wilson was intelligent, beautiful, and exuded a relentless charm that caught the attention of everyone in her wake. She was also a fake, nothing more than a collection of cyber footprints created by a shady intelligence organization for a singular purpose. Could she really seduce a married man twice her age? Could a former dance prodigy shake off addiction and her latest self-induced tragedy to keep her head above water long enough to pull off the ruse? Did she even want to?Vijay pretended to be a reformed hacker. A loving husband, a competent CIO, a loyal American. He'd been pretending so long he almost believed it himself. But when a hand-picked young woman enters his life to remind him of the joy of breaking rules, will he resist the temptation? And did the people targeting him understand just how dangerous a word class hacker could be if he stopped pretending?Yingtai had pretended to be so many different people, she wasn't sure who she even wanted to be. This time the aging seductress would be playing spy master. She would work behind the curtain, manipulating her puppets on a stage of politics, cyber terrorism, and revenge. But who was pulling her strings? And had she really left all those other lives behind?
Dean Sardelle is in trouble. The family's pet store empire is sinking. Some say it's because Dean's old man talks to fish. Others say it's because Dean is the poster child millennial, living with his parents and playing video games all day. His mother's health issues are drowning the family in medical debt. Their last hope was to send Sheila-Dean's motivated older sister-off to college to get a business degree. But if the tuition doesn't finish them, waiting four years will. In walks Midas Murphy, a silver-tongued fellow with a golden touch. He says he can help. What follows will send Dean on a voyage through industry, espionage, alien sex cults, suicide, and a murder; and somewhere between truth and deception lies salvation for the family. Or not.
The social dynamics of "alternative facts": why what you believe depends on who you know Why should we care about having true beliefs? And why do demonstrably false beliefs persist and spread despite bad, even fatal, consequences for the people who hold them? Philosophers of science Cailin O'Connor and James Weatherall argue that social factors, rather than individual psychology, are what's essential to understanding the spread and persistence of false beliefs. It might seem that there's an obvious reason that true beliefs matter: false beliefs will hurt you. But if that's right, then why is it (apparently) irrelevant to many people whether they believe true things or not? The Misinformation Age, written for a political era riven by "fake news," "alternative facts," and disputes over the validity of everything from climate change to the size of inauguration crowds, shows convincingly that what you believe depends on who you know. If social forces explain the persistence of false belief, we must understand how those forces work in order to fight misinformation effectively.
Taiwan has long defended itself from political meddling, including disinformation, by the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Attempts to influence Taiwan’s domestic politics have increased in both intensity and severity following the election of Tsai Ing-wen in 2016, with Beijing continuing to target the basic underpinnings of Taiwan’s democratic system. The disinformation campaigns carried out by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) are often obscured by the secrecy and opacity of the CCP’s “united front” approach, which makes it difficult to accurately diagnose and right-size the problem of disinformation, complicating efforts to craft effective solutions. While CCP disinformation campaigns pose a clearly identifiable threat to the United States and Taiwan, they are only one part of a larger disinformation problem facing democracies in this era of instant and omnipresent communication technologies. Indeed, the experience of both Taiwan and the United States suggest that rival political parties are incentivized to exaggerate and weaponize charges of “foreign interference” against each other—charges which often are more damaging to underlying trust levels in a democracy than the original foreign disinformation attacks themselves.
* A TIMES and GUARDIAN BOOK OF THE YEAR * 'Quietly frightening.' Guardian 'Essential reading.' Irish Times 'Consistently chilling.' Herald 'Shocking and entertaining.' Daily Telegraph When information is a weapon, everyone is at war. We live in a world of influence operations run amok, a world of dark ads, psy-ops, hacks, bots, soft facts, ISIS, Putin, trolls, Trump. We've lost not only our sense of peace and democracy - but our sense of what those words even mean. As Peter Pomerantsev seeks to make sense of the disinformation age, he meets Twitter revolutionaries and pop-up populists, 'behavioural change' salesmen, Jihadi fan-boys, Identitarians, truth cops, and much more. Forty years after his dissident parents were pursued by the KGB, he finds the Kremlin re-emerging as a great propaganda power. His research takes him back to Russia - but the answers he finds there are surprising. 'The world's most powerful people are lying like never before, and no one understands the art of their lies like Peter Pomerantsev.' Oliver Bullough 'Through our current smog of smouldering bullshit, This is Not Propaganda shines a necessary, humane and dissident light.' Nick Rankin 'Far more than just another take on today's chaotic information wars, this book argues that we will have to understand how propaganda seeks to shape our deepest thoughts before we can confront it.' Anne Applebaum
In today's digital age, online and mobile advertising are of growing importance, with advertising no longer bound to the traditional media industry. Although the advertising industry still has broader access to the different measures and channels, users and consumers today have more possibilities topublish, get informed or communicate - to "co-create" -, and toreach a bigger audience. There is a good chance thus that users and consumers are better informed about the objectives and persuasive tricks of the advertising industry than ever before. At the same time, advertisers can inform about products and services without the limitations of time and place faced by traditional mass media. But will there really be a time when advertisers and consumers have equal power, or does tracking users online and offline lead to a situation where advertisers have more information about the consumers than ever before? The volume discusses these questionsand related issues.
Teaching in the Age of Disinformation makes a case for the importance of developing students’ intelligent habits of mind so that they become more discriminating consumers of the information that comes at them from the Internet, social media, television and the tabloid press in this “alternate truth” era. Part I sets the stage for the need for an informed citizenry, given the many and varied sources of disinformation that they are exposed to and what the implications are when they are unable to make such distinctions. Part II deals with the specifics of how teachers may develop curriculum activities that call for higher order thinking, within the many and diverse subject areas of elementary and secondary education. Hundreds of examples of curriculum activities are included, as well as suggestions for how teachers use higher order questioning strategies in classroom discussions to enable and promote student thinking. “A pleasure to read,” the book draws on the author’s long and extensive experience in teaching, writing and research with “teaching for thinking,” and offers teachers research-tested ways to incorporate the development of students’ intelligent habits of mind in their daily classroom work.
Die Idee der Freiheit und Gleichheit bilden seit der Aufklarung die gewichtigsten moralischen Standards der Demokratietheorie. Doch vor dem Hintergrund permanenter sozialer und okonomischer Veranderungen stellt sich der Sozialphilosophie die Aufgabe, den Bedeutungsgehalt dieser normativen Parameter immer wieder kritisch zu definieren und deren Reichweite neu zu vermessen. Das Recht auf einen gleichen und freien Status als Bergerinnen und Burger bedarf der Auslegung im Kontext besonderer sozialer und politischer Bedingungen, und die Rechtfertigung spezifischer sozialer Rechte kann nicht auf die Berucksichtigung okonomischer Rahmenbedingungen verzichten.
Netwar—like cyberwar—describes a new spectrum of conflict that is emerging in the wake of the information revolution. What distinguished netwar is the networked organizational structure of its practitioners and their quickness in coming together in swarming attacks. To confront this new type of conflict, it is crucial for governments, military, and law enforcement to begin networking themselves.
Presents a collection of essays on magic and the occult, covering such topics as spellcasting, how to become a practicing magician, wicca and modern paganism, and the works of H.P. Lovecraft.
Cyberterrorism is the latest and possibly the most intriguing form of terrorism. The legal systems, not to mention the computer systems, of the world are ill-prepared for this new type of terrorism which raises unique issues. Terrorism in cyberspace brings together two significant modern fears: the fear of technology and the fear of terrorists. It is generally understood to mean unlawful attacks and threats of these against computers, networks, and the information stored therein when done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people in furtherance of political or social objectives. It can be a low-budget form of attack. The only real costs may be some computer equipment and programming time. Unlike a real world attack, the terrorist does not need to make or transport a bomb; customs inspection is not an issue and delivery of the destructive weapon may require only a Personal Computer and a telephone line.