The Day We Found the Universe

The Day We Found the Universe Author : Marcia Bartusiak
Release : 2009-04-07
Publisher : Vintage
ISBN : 0307378012
File Size : 52.12 MB
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The riveting and mesmerizing story behind a watershed period in human history, the discovery of the startling size and true nature of our universe. On New Years Day in 1925, a young Edwin Hubble released his finding that our Universe was far bigger, eventually measured as a thousand trillion times larger than previously believed. Hubble’s proclamation sent shock waves through the scientific community. Six years later, in a series of meetings at Mount Wilson Observatory, Hubble and others convinced Albert Einstein that the Universe was not static but in fact expanding. Here Marcia Bartusiak reveals the key players, battles of will, clever insights, incredible technology, ground-breaking research, and wrong turns made by the early investigators of the heavens as they raced to uncover what many consider one of most significant discoveries in scientific history.

Einstein Relatively Simple

Einstein Relatively Simple Author : Ira Mark Egdall
Release : 2014-01-06
Publisher : World Scientific
ISBN : 9814525618
File Size : 78.58 MB
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"Outstanding Academic Title for 2014" by CHOICE Einstein Relatively Simple brings together for the first time an exceptionally clear explanation of both special and general relativity. It is for people who always wanted to understand Einstein's ideas but never thought they could. Told with humor, enthusiasm, and rare clarity, this entertaining book reveals how a former high school drop-out revolutionized our understanding of space and time. From E=mc2 and everyday time travel to black holes and the big bang, Einstein Relatively Simple takes us all, regardless of our scientific backgrounds, on a mind-boggling journey through the depths of Einstein's universe. Along the way, we track Einstein through the perils and triumphs of his life — follow his thinking, his logic, and his insights — and chronicle the audacity, imagination, and sheer genius of the man recognized as the greatest scientist of the modern era. In Part I on special relativity we learn how time slows and space shrinks with motion, and how mass and energy are equivalent. Part II on general relativity reveals a cosmos where black holes trap light and stop time, where wormholes form gravitational time machines, where space itself is continually expanding, and where some 13.7 billion years ago our universe was born in the ultimate cosmic event — the Big Bang. Contents:Einstein Discovered: Special Relativity, E = mc2,and Spacetime:From Unknown to RevolutionaryThe Great ConflictThe Two PostulatesA New RealityThe Shrinking of TimeSimultaneity and the Squeezing of SpaceThe World's Most Famous EquationSpacetimeEinstein Revealed: General Relativity, Gravity, and the Cosmos:Einstein's Dream“The Happiest Thought of My Life”The Warping of Space and TimeStitching SpacetimeWhat is Spacetime Curvature?Einstein's MasterpieceThe Universe RevealedIn the Beginning Readership: Adults and young people all over the world who are curious about Einstein and how the universe works. Keywords:Einstein;Relativity;Special Relativity;General Relativity;Spacetime;Big Bang;Black Holes;Expansion of Space;Time Travel;E=mc2;Universe;Cosmos;Time Dilation;Length Contraction;Wormholes;Light Postulate;Length Contraction;Gravitational Time Dilation;Time Warp;Space Warp;Relativity Postulate;Lorentz Transformation;Light Clock;Relativity of Simultaneity;Twins Paradox;Equivalence Principle;Gravity;Spacetime Curvature;Spacetime Interval;Gaussian Co-Ordinates;Geodesic;Momenergy;The Einstein Equation;Schwarzschild Geometry;Bending of Starlight;Frame Dragging;Cosmic Microwave Background;Geometry of Universe;Flat Universe;Critical Density;Dark Matter;Dark Energy;Future of UniverseKey Features:Einstein Relatively Simple is the definitive book on Einstein's theories for the lay reader — one that is fun to read, comprehensive, and most important, understandableEinstein's ideas are explained in everyday languageThe book devotes eight chapters to special and a full eight chapters to general relativity. Most popular science books give general relativity only a brief mention or ignore it altogetherReviews: “This general relativity theory changed our views on the origin and on the ending (if any) of the universe … all topics that tickle the imagination of a general public and Egdall, bringing the reader to the point beyond general relativity, does not miss the opportunity to end his guided tour with a sparkling firework of these issues … it is an entertaining introduction for the layman, that brings the reader a very long way.” The European Mathematical Society “He covers the main topics of special and general relativity in a refreshing, personal way. This is a well-crafted, well-documented text with extensive endnotes, in which a bibliography is embedded. He introduces readers to his own unique entry into this very populous genre. Valuable for inquisitive nonscientists.” CHOICE “I'm crazy about it. It's the best presentation of relativity for non-scientists that I've seen.” Art Hobson Professor Emeritus of Physics University of Arkansas "The writing is jovial and energetic and holds the reader's attention. This book is a nice introduction to modern physics, with a great biography of Einstein included. This book is recommended for a lay reader with basic algebra skills; high school and beginning college physics students would find it easily accessible." Zentralblatt MATH

Black Hole

Black Hole Author : Marcia Bartusiak
Release : 2015-04-28
Publisher : Yale University Press
ISBN : 0300213638
File Size : 44.43 MB
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The award-winning science writer “packs a lot of learning into a deceptively light and enjoyable read” exploring the contentious history of the black hole (New Scientist). For more than half a century, physicists and astronomers engaged in heated dispute over the possibility of black holes in the universe. The strange notion of a space-time abyss from which not even light escapes seemed to confound all logic. Now Marcia Bartusiak, author of Einstein’s Unfinished Symphony and The Day We Found the Universe, recounts the frustrating, exhilarating, and at times humorous battles over one of history’s most dazzling ideas. Bartusiak shows how the black hole helped revive Einstein’s greatest achievement, the general theory of relativity, after decades of languishing in obscurity. Not until astronomers discovered such surprising new phenomena as neutron stars and black holes did the once-sedate universe transform into an Einsteinian cosmos, filled with sources of titanic energy that can be understood only in the light of relativity. Black Hole explains how Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking, and other leading thinkers completely changed the way we see the universe.

Unveiling Galaxies

Unveiling Galaxies Author : Jean-René Roy
Release : 2017-10-31
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
ISBN : 1108417019
File Size : 90.94 MB
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A thought provoking study of the powerful impact of images in guiding astronomers' understanding of galaxies through time.

The Day Without Yesterday

The Day Without Yesterday Author : Stuart Clark
Release : 2013-02-07
Publisher : Birlinn
ISBN : 0857905333
File Size : 44.77 MB
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Europe is marching blindly into the First World War and Berlin is in a storm of nationalist marches and army recruitment. Albert Einstein anticipates the carnage to come when his university colleagues begin work on poison gas to 'shorten the war'. He is also struggling with the collapse of his marriage in the wake of an illicit affair. Increasingly isolated, Einstein finds his academic work sidelined with few people entertaining his outlandish new way of understanding the universe. Meanwhile, in the trenches of the western front, a devoutly religious young Belgian Georges Lemaitre vows to become both a physicist and a Catholic priest if he survives. When the war ends, Einstein does make his breakthrough and is thrust into the international limelight. Lemaitre confronts him with a startling concept: that buried in the maths of the theory of relativity is a beginning of space and time, a moment when the universe came into existence - a day without yesterday. But can the priest be trusted? Or is he simply trying to foist a version of Biblical Genesis onto Einstein's now world famous theory.

The Story of Evolution in 25 Discoveries

The Story of Evolution in 25 Discoveries Author : Donald R. Prothero
Release : 2020-12-22
Publisher : Columbia University Press
ISBN : 0231548850
File Size : 26.21 MB
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The theory of evolution unites the past, present, and future of living things. It puts humanity’s place in the universe into necessary perspective. Despite a history of controversy, the evidence for evolution continues to accumulate as a result of many separate strands of amazing scientific sleuthing. In The Story of Evolution in 25 Discoveries, Donald R. Prothero explores the most fascinating breakthroughs in piecing together the evidence for evolution. In twenty-five vignettes, he recounts the dramatic stories of the people who made crucial discoveries, placing each moment in the context of what it represented for the progress of science. He tackles topics like what it means to see evolution in action and what the many transitional fossils show us about evolution, following figures from Darwin to lesser-known researchers as they unlock the mysteries of the fossil record, the earth, and the universe. The book also features the stories of animal species strange and familiar, including humans—and our ties to some of our closest relatives and more distant cousins. Prothero’s wide-ranging tales showcase awe-inspiring and bizarre aspects of nature and the powerful insights they give us into the way that life works. Brisk and entertaining while firmly grounded in fundamental science, The Story of Evolution in 25 Discoveries is a captivating read for anyone curious about the evidence for evolution and what it means for humanity.

Fracture

Fracture Author : Philipp Blom
Release : 2015-04-14
Publisher : Hachette UK
ISBN : 0465040713
File Size : 66.70 MB
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When the Great War ended in 1918, the West was broken. Religious faith, patriotism, and the belief in human progress had all been called into question by the mass carnage experienced by both sides. Shell shocked and traumatized, the West faced a world it no longer recognized: the old order had collapsed, replaced by an age of machines. The world hurtled forward on gears and crankshafts, and terrifying new ideologies arose from the wreckage of past belief. In Fracture, critically acclaimed historian Philipp Blom argues that in the aftermath of World War I, citizens of the West directed their energies inwards, launching into hedonistic, aesthetic, and intellectual adventures of self-discovery. It was a period of both bitter disillusionment and visionary progress. From Surrealism to Oswald Spengler's The Decline of the West; from Fritz Lang's Metropolis to theoretical physics, and from Art Deco to Jazz and the Charleston dance, artists, scientists, and philosophers grappled with the question of how to live and what to believe in a broken age. Morbid symptoms emerged simultaneously from the decay of World War I: progress and innovation were everywhere met with increasing racism and xenophobia. America closed its borders to European refugees and turned away from the desperate poverty caused by the Great Depression. On both sides of the Atlantic, disenchanted voters flocked to Communism and fascism, forming political parties based on violence and revenge that presaged the horror of a new World War. Vividly recreating this era of unparalleled ambition, artistry, and innovation, Blom captures the seismic shifts that defined the interwar period and continue to shape our world today.

The Glass Universe

The Glass Universe Author : Dava Sobel
Release : 2016-12-06
Publisher : Penguin
ISBN : 069814869X
File Size : 79.76 MB
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From #1 New York Times bestselling author Dava Sobel, the "inspiring" (People), little-known true story of women's landmark contributions to astronomy A New York Times Book Review Notable Book of 2017 Named one of the best books of the year by NPR, The Economist, Smithsonian, Nature, and NPR's Science Friday Nominated for the PEN/E.O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award "A joy to read.” —The Wall Street Journal In the mid-nineteenth century, the Harvard College Observatory began employing women as calculators, or “human computers,” to interpret the observations their male counterparts made via telescope each night. At the outset this group included the wives, sisters, and daughters of the resident astronomers, but soon the female corps included graduates of the new women's colleges—Vassar, Wellesley, and Smith. As photography transformed the practice of astronomy, the ladies turned from computation to studying the stars captured nightly on glass photographic plates. The “glass universe” of half a million plates that Harvard amassed over the ensuing decades—through the generous support of Mrs. Anna Palmer Draper, the widow of a pioneer in stellar photography—enabled the women to make extraordinary discoveries that attracted worldwide acclaim. They helped discern what stars were made of, divided the stars into meaningful categories for further research, and found a way to measure distances across space by starlight. Their ranks included Williamina Fleming, a Scottish woman originally hired as a maid who went on to identify ten novae and more than three hundred variable stars; Annie Jump Cannon, who designed a stellar classification system that was adopted by astronomers the world over and is still in use; and Dr. Cecilia Helena Payne, who in 1956 became the first ever woman professor of astronomy at Harvard—and Harvard’s first female department chair. Elegantly written and enriched by excerpts from letters, diaries, and memoirs, The Glass Universe is the hidden history of the women whose contributions to the burgeoning field of astronomy forever changed our understanding of the stars and our place in the universe.

Evolutions

Evolutions Author : Oren Harman
Release : 2018-06-12
Publisher : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN : 0374716536
File Size : 30.77 MB
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A brilliant lyrical exploration of how modern science illuminates what it means to be human, from the award-winning author of The Price of Altruism We no longer think, like the ancient Chinese did, that the world was hatched from an egg, or, like the Maori, that it came from the tearing-apart of a love embrace. The Greeks told of a tempestuous Hera and a cunning Zeus, but we now use genes and natural selection to explain fear and desire, and physics to demystify the workings of the universe. Science is an astounding achievement, but are we really any wiser than the ancients? Has science revealed the secrets of fate and immortality? Has it provided protection from jealousy or love? There are those who believe that science has replaced faith, but must it also be a death knell for mythology? Evolutions brings to life the latest scientific thinking on the birth of the universe and the solar system, the journey from a single cell all the way to our human minds. Reawakening our sense of wonder and terror at the world around us and within us, Oren Harman uses modern science to create new and original mythologies. Here are the earth and the moon presenting a cosmological view of motherhood, a panicking mitochondrion introducing sex and death to the world, the loneliness of consciousness emerging from the memory of an octopus, and the birth of language in evolution summoning humankind’s struggle with truth. Science may not solve our existential puzzles, but like the age-old legends, its magical discoveries can help us continue the never-ending search.

Beyond the Solar System

Beyond the Solar System Author : Mary Kay Carson
Release : 2013-06
Publisher : Chicago Review Press
ISBN : 1613745478
File Size : 28.21 MB
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Tracing the evolution of humankind's pursuit of astronomical knowledge, this resource looks deep into the furthest reaches of space. Children will follow along as the realization that the Earth is not at the center of the universe leads all the way up to recent telescopic proof of planets orbiting stars outside the solar system. In addition to its engaging history, this book contains 21 hands-on projects to further explore the subjects discussed. Readers will build a three-dimensional representation of the constellation Orion, see how the universe expands using an inflating balloon, and construct a reflecting telescope out of a makeup mirror and a magnifying glass. It also includes small biographies of famous astronomers, a time line of major scientific discoveries, a glossary of technical terms, and dozens of full-color images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

Our Place in the Universe - II

Our Place in the Universe - II Author : Sun Kwok
Release :
Publisher : Springer Nature
ISBN : 3030802604
File Size : 51.89 MB
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A History of the Universe in 100 Stars

A History of the Universe in 100 Stars Author : Florian Freistetter
Release : 2021-04-15
Publisher : Hachette UK
ISBN : 1529410134
File Size : 26.10 MB
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'Inventive [...] done beautifully' - TLS From the Big Bang to the Gaia Mission, this is a very personal history of the universe through the author's favourite 100 stars. Astronomer Florian Freistetter has chosen 100 stars that have almost nothing in common. Some are bright and famous, some shine so feebly you need a huge telescope. There are big stars, small stars, nearby stars and faraway stars. Some died a while ago, others have not even yet come into being. Collectively they tell the story of the whole world, according to Freistetter. There is Algol, for example, the Demon Star, whose strange behaviour has long caused people sleepless nights. And Gamma Draconis, from which we know that the earth rotates around its own axis. There is also the star sequence 61 Cygni, which revealed the size of the cosmos to us. Then there are certain stars used by astronomers to search for extra-terrestrial life, to explore interstellar space travel, or to explain why the dinosaurs became extinct. In 100 short, fascinating and entertaining chapters, Freistetter not only reveals the past and future of the cosmos, but also the story of the people who have tried to understand the world in which we live.

The Philosophy of Cosmology

The Philosophy of Cosmology Author : Khalil Chamcham
Release : 2017-03-31
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
ISBN : 1107145392
File Size : 51.38 MB
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Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

Dispatches from Planet 3

Dispatches from Planet 3 Author : Marcia Bartusiak
Release : 2018-09-18
Publisher : Yale University Press
ISBN : 0300240589
File Size : 31.38 MB
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An award-winning science writer presents a captivating collection of cosmological essays for the armchair astronomer The galaxy, the multiverse, and the history of astronomy are explored in this engaging compilation of cosmological “tales” by multiple award†‘winning science writer Marcia Bartusiak. In thirty†‘two concise and engrossing essays, the author provides a deeper understanding of the nature of the universe and those who strive to uncover its mysteries. Bartusiak shares the back stories for many momentous astronomical discoveries, including the contributions of such pioneers as Beatrice Tinsley and her groundbreaking research in galactic evolution, and Jocelyn Bell Burnell, the scientist who first discovered radio pulsars. An endlessly fascinating collection that you can dip into in any order, these pieces will transport you to ancient Mars, when water flowed freely across its surface; to the collision of two black holes, a cosmological event that released fifty times more energy than was radiating from every star in the universe; and to the beginning of time itself.

God and the Folly of Faith

God and the Folly of Faith Author : Victor J. Stenger
Release : 2012-04-03
Publisher : Prometheus Books
ISBN : 1616146001
File Size : 48.20 MB
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A thorough and hard-hitting critique that is a must read for anyone interested in the interaction between religion and science. It has become the prevalent view among sociologists, historians, and some theistic scientists that religion and science have never been in serious conflict. Some even claim that Christianity was responsible for the development of science. In a sweeping historical survey that begins with ancient Greek science and proceeds through the Renaissance and Enlightenment to contemporary advances in physics and cosmology, Stenger makes a convincing case that not only is this conclusion false, but Christianity actually held back the progress of science for one thousand years. It is significant, he notes, that the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century occurred only after the revolts against established ecclesiastic authorities in the Renaissance and Reformation opened up new avenues of thought. The author goes on to detail how religion and science are fundamentally incompatible in several areas: the origin of the universe and its physical parameters, the origin of complexity, holism versus reductionism, the nature of mind and consciousness, and the source of morality. In the end, Stenger is most troubled by the negative influence that organized religion often exerts on politics and society. He points out antiscientific attitudes embedded in popular religion that are being used to suppress scientific results on issues of global importance, such as overpopulation and environmental degradation. When religion fosters disrespect for science, it threatens the generations of humanity that will follow ours.

Flashes of Creation

Flashes of Creation Author : Paul Halpern
Release : 2021-08-17
Publisher : Hachette UK
ISBN : 1541673611
File Size : 24.27 MB
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A respected physics professor and author breaks down the great debate over the Big Bang and the continuing quest to understand the fate of the universe. Today, the Big Bang is so entrenched in our understanding of the cosmos that to doubt it would seem crazy. But as Paul Halpern shows in Flashes of Creation, just decades ago its mere mention caused sparks to fly. At the center of the debate were Russian American physicist George Gamow and British astrophysicist Fred Hoyle. Gamow insisted that a fiery explosion explained how the elements of the universe were created. Attacking the idea as half-baked, Hoyle countered that the universe was engaged in a never-ending process of creation. The battle was fierce. In the end, Gamow turned out to be right -- mostly -- and Hoyle, along with his many achievements, is remembered for giving the theory the silliest possible name: "The Big Bang." Halpern captures the brilliance of both thinkers and reminds us that even those proved wrong have much to teach us about boldness, imagination, and the universe itself.

Where the Sky Touched the Earth

Where the Sky Touched the Earth Author : Don Lago
Release : 2017-02-01
Publisher : University of Nevada Press
ISBN : 0874174740
File Size : 36.90 MB
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The landscapes of the American Southwest—the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, the Sedona red rocks—have long filled humans with wonder about nature. This is the home of Lowell Observatory, where astronomers first discovered evidence that the universe is expanding; Meteor Crater, where Apollo astronauts trained for the moon; and Native American tribes with their own ancient, rich ways of relating to the cosmos. With the personal, poetic style of the very best literary nature writing, Don Lago explores how these landscapes have offered humans a deeper sense of connection with the universe. While most nature writing never leaves the ground, Lago is one of the few writers who has applied it to the universe, seeking ties between humans and the astronomical forces that gave us birth. Nowhere else in the world is the link between earth and sky so powerful. Lago witnesses a solar eclipse over the Grand Canyon, climbs primeval volcanos, and sees the universe in tree rings. Through ageless Native American ceremonies, modern telescopes, and even dreams of flying saucers, Lago, who is not only a poet but a true philosopher of science, strives to find order and meaning in the world and brings out the Southwest’s beauty and mystery.

Big History and the Future of Humanity

Big History and the Future of Humanity Author : Fred Spier
Release : 2015-05-06
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
ISBN : 1118881729
File Size : 58.52 MB
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big history and the future of humanity “This remains the best single attempt to theorize big history as a discipline that can link core concepts and paradigms across all historical disciplines, from cosmology to geology, from biology to human history. With additional and updated material, the Second Edition also offers a fine introduction to the history of big history and a superb introductory survey to the big history story. Essential reading for anyone interested in a rapidly evolving new field of scholarship that links the sciences and the humanities into a modern, science-based origin story.” David Christian, Macquarie University “Notable for its theoretic approach, this new Second Edition is both an indispensable contribution to the emerging big history narrative and a powerful university textbook. Spier defines words carefully and recognizes the limits of current knowledge, aspects of his own clear thinking.” Cynthia Brown, Emerita, Dominican University of California Reflecting the latest theories in the sciences and humanities, this new edition of Big History and the Future of Humanity presents an accessible and original overview of the entire sweep of history from the origins of the universe and life on Earth up to the present day. Placing the relatively brief period of human history within a much broader framework – one that considers everything from vast galaxy clusters to the tiniest sub-atomic particles – big history is an innovative theoretical approach that opens up entirely new multidisciplinary research agendas. Noted historian Fred Spier reveals how a thorough examination of patterns of complexity can offer richer insights into what the future may have in store for humanity. The second edition includes new learning features, such as highlighted scientific concepts, an illustrative timeline and comprehensive glossary. By exploring the cumulative history from the Big Bang to the modern day, Big History and the Future of Humanity, Second Edition, sheds important historical light on where we have been – and offers a tantalizing glimpse of what lies ahead.

The Drake Equation

The Drake Equation Author : Douglas A. Vakoch
Release : 2015-07-02
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
ISBN : 1107073650
File Size : 81.82 MB
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Leading scientists and historians explore the equation that guides modern astrobiology's search for life beyond Earth.