The Subcarpathian Rusyns are an east Slavic people who live along the southern slopes of the Carpathian mountains where the borders of Ukraine, Slovakia, and Poland meet. Through centuries of oppression under the Austro-Hungarian and Soviet empires, they have struggled to preserve their culture and identity. Rusyn literature, reflecting various national influences and written in several linguistic variants, has historically been a response to social conditions, an affirmation of identity, and a strategy to ensure national survival. In this first English-language study of Rusyn literature, Elaine Rusinko looks at the literary history of Subcarpathia from the perspective of cultural studies and postcolonial theory, presenting Rusyn literature as a process of continual negotiation among states, religions, and languages, resulting in a characteristic hybridity that has made it difficult to classify Rusyn literature in traditional literary scholarship. Rusinko traces Rusyn literature from its emergence in the sixteenth century, through the national awakening of the mid-nineteenth century and its struggle for survival under Hungarian oppression, to its renaissance in inter-war Czechoslovakia. She argues that Rusyn literature provides an acute illustration of the constructedness of national identity, and has prefigured international postmodern culture with its emphasis on border-crossings, intersecting influences, and liminal spaces. With extracts from Rusyn texts never before available in English, Rusinko's study creates an entirely new perspective on Rusyn literature that rescues it from the clichés of Soviet dominated critical theory and makes an important contribution to Slavic studies in particular and post-colonial critical studies in general.
Theory suggests that cross-border banking is beneficial as long as there is a non-perfect correlation across country-specific risks. Using a unique hand-collected dataset with cross-border loans for the 61 largest European banks, we find that cross-border banking in general decreases bank risk, and that the beneficial impact from cross-border banking increases when banks diversify more into countries with dissimilar economic and financial conditions. However, we find that banks do not fully utilize these diversification opportunities as banks mainly invest in countries that are economically more similar to their home country.
This volume explores the possibilities and implications of transnational citizenship in terms of its cultural affinities and political affiliations. The historical experience of the US, as a federal and multi-cultural project, first inspired the concept of transnationalism. The development of the EU constitutes a more recent daring project that opens up all manner of questions concerning such transnational citizenship. The US offers a rich store of comparisons of relevance to the ongoing formation of the New Europe. This volume brings together contributions by American Studies scholars from such various transnational settings and asks them to address questions of transnational citizenship and of the American resonance in its formation.
With the dual and often conflicting responsibilities of deterring illegal immigration and providing services to legal immigrants, the U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) is a bureaucracy beset with contradictions. Critics fault the agency for failing to stop the entry of undocumented workers from Mexico. Agency staff complain that harsh enforcement policies discourage legal immigrants from seeking INS aid, while ever-changing policy mandates from Congress and a lack of funding hinder both enforcement and service activities. In this book, Lisa Magaña convincingly argues that a profound disconnection between national-level policymaking and local-level policy implementation prevents the INS from effectively fulfilling either its enforcement or its service mission. She begins with a history and analysis of the making of immigration policy which reveals that federal and state lawmakers respond more to the concerns, fears, and prejudices of the public than to the realities of immigration or the needs of the INS. She then illustrates the effects of shifting and conflicting mandates through case studies of INS implementation of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Proposition 187, and the 1996 Welfare Reform and Responsibility Act and their impact on Mexican immigrants. Magaña concludes with fact-based recommendations to improve the agency's performance.
Communities across Borders examines the many ways in which national, ethnic or religious groups, professions, businesses and cultures are becoming increasingly tangled together. It show how this entanglement is the result of the vast flows of people, meanings, goods and money that now migrate between countries and world regions. Now the effectiveness and significance of electronic technologies for interpersonal communication (including cyber-communities and the interconnectedness of the global world economy) simultaneously empowers even the poorest people to forge effective cultures stretching national borders, and compels many to do so to escape injustice and deprivation.
Miracles, conversions and baptisms -that's what missionary stories are made of, usually. For most missionary kids, life on the field tends to be less flashy than what's portrayed in support letters. When the romanticism of the mission field is stripped away, you find kids trying to make friends, survive acne and fit in. These familiar struggles, however, are shoved into unfamiliar environments. Through a series of comical yet candid stories, Grace Ross delves into her life as a missionary kid in Mexico. She shares how navigating a complex web of cultures has helped her be more observant, more adaptable, more flexible. However, this also makes it harder to have a true sense of self, an understanding of one's identity that goes deeper than the amorphous outer shell.Unabashedly, Grace shares of her life beneath the scripted missionary stories. She identifies the God who not only performs the miracles mentioned in newsletters but also knows and loves the children balancing cultures. She finds renewed joy in living beyond the compulsion to fit in and the impulse to live up to other people's expectations. It is only after she chooses to let go of what helped her belong that she experiences the freedom to simply be.
Twenty-eight recent articles and excerpts present differing views on organizational transformation, providing a framework for understanding and evaluating transformation of international organizations. Four sections examine the contextual environment that is driving the transformation of international organizations; a number of broad frameworks for describing and evaluating transformation; subsidiary- level perspectives; and models and studies dealing with specific aspects such as globalization of an ethnocentric firm, alternatives for managing headquarters, and the management of multinational RandD. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Edited proceedings from the Institute for Global Dialogue's 2006 conference, reflecting on the UN's manifold accomplishments and failures with particular reference to its role in Africa.
"Expert scholars in the field come together to look at the impact of political boundaries upon the region, along with pressures from European and economic integration, the resurgence of nationalism, and refugee and security concerns. The authors explore the politics of memory: the ways in which the past shapes conflicts in the present, but also how memories held by individuals and communities challenge master narratives of 'us versus them'. Turning to the present, the book investigates how political fragmentation and divisive identities manifest in territorial borders influence everyday lives. Rather than a clear-cut boundary between North and South, the vision that emerges is of a Mediterranean transformed by the forces of globalization into a set of hybrid frontiers: borderlands shaped by intertwined exchanges, identities and conflicts." --Book Jacket.
This is a powerful collection of sketches, reviews, and papers focusing on issues related to African emancipation. It touches on many crucial themes such as Black Consciousness as a reference point of Pan-Africanism; Pan-Africanism and the relationship between race and class; color as an instrument of African oppression and exploitation; the myth of race and color and the psychological syndrome of self-hatred that has been transferred from one generation to the next. The views range from the political to the cultural.The concerns are Africa and the African diaspora. The book raises important considerations which need to be confronted as we move into the 21st century. How is African emancipation both on the continent and the diaspora to be approached? This book attempts to offer answers. The author makes the assertion that only unity will save Africa. The message is not only aimed at the academic but also the scholar activist and the politician.