Red Meat and Processed Meat

Red Meat and Processed Meat Author : IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans
Release : 2018
Publisher :
ISBN :
File Size : 78.17 MB
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This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the consumption of red meat and the consumption of processed meat. Red meat refers to unprocessed mammalian muscle meat (e.g. beef, veal, pork, lamb) including that which may be minced or frozen. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking or other processes to enhance flavour or improve preservation. Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but may also contain other meats including poultry and offal (e.g. liver) or meat by-products such as blood. Red meat contains proteins of high biological value, and important micronutrients such as B vitamins, iron (both free iron and haem iron), and zinc. Carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, can be produced by cooking of meat, with greatest amounts generated at high temperatures by pan-frying, grilling, or barbecuing. Meat processing such as curing and smoking can result in formation of carcinogenic chemicals including N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to the carcinogenic hazard to humans of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. The Working Group assessed more than 800 epidemiological studies that investigated the association of cancer (more than 15 types) with consumption of red meat or processed meat, including large cohorts in many countries, from several continents, with diverse ethnicities and diets.

Red Meat and Processed Meat

Red Meat and Processed Meat Author : IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans
Release : 2018
Publisher :
ISBN :
File Size : 47.99 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 578
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This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the consumption of red meat and the consumption of processed meat. Red meat refers to unprocessed mammalian muscle meat (e.g. beef, veal, pork, lamb) including that which may be minced or frozen. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking or other processes to enhance flavour or improve preservation. Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but may also contain other meats including poultry and offal (e.g. liver) or meat by-products such as blood. Red meat contains proteins of high biological value, and important micronutrients such as B vitamins, iron (both free iron and haem iron), and zinc. Carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, can be produced by cooking of meat, with greatest amounts generated at high temperatures by pan-frying, grilling, or barbecuing. Meat processing such as curing and smoking can result in formation of carcinogenic chemicals including N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to the carcinogenic hazard to humans of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. The Working Group assessed more than 800 epidemiological studies that investigated the association of cancer (more than 15 types) with consumption of red meat or processed meat, including large cohorts in many countries, from several continents, with diverse ethnicities and diets.

Red Meat and Processed Meat

Red Meat and Processed Meat Author : International Agency for Research on Cancer
Release : 2018-06
Publisher : IARC Monographs on the Evaluat
ISBN : 9789283201526
File Size : 69.65 MB
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This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the consumption of red meat and the consumption of processed meat. Red meat refers to unprocessed mammalian muscle meat (e.g. beef, veal, pork, lamb) including that which may be minced or frozen. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking or other processes to enhance flavor or improve preservation. Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but may also contain other meats including poultry and offal (e.g. liver) or meat by-products such as blood. Red meat contains proteins of high biological value, and important micronutrients such as B vitamins, iron (both free iron and haem iron), and zinc. Carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, can be produced by cooking of meat, with greatest amounts generated at high temperatures by pan-frying, grilling, or barbecuing. Meat processing such as curing and smoking can result in formation of carcinogenic chemicals including N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to the carcinogenic hazard to humans of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. The Working Group assessed more than 800 epidemiological studies that investigated the association of cancer (more than 15 types) with consumption of red meat or processed meat, including large cohorts in many countries, from several continents, with diverse ethnicities and diets.

The Food Cure

The Food Cure Author : Monte Lai
Release :
Publisher : World Scientific
ISBN : 9811215251
File Size : 37.12 MB
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Red Meat Or Processed Meat and Cardiovascular Disease, is There an Association?

Red Meat Or Processed Meat and Cardiovascular Disease, is There an Association? Author : Andrew Mirviss
Release : 2020
Publisher :
ISBN :
File Size : 88.55 MB
Format : PDF
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) stands alone as the number one cause of death in the U.S. This proposal is for a retrospective cohort study to assist in quantifying how much red meat and processed meat can be consumed without significantly increasing the risk of CVD for adults aged 40-85 years old in the U.S. Clustered sampling will be utilized in six different areas of the U.S. to ensure all races, genders, socioeconomic levels, and ages are represented. Each subject will be asked to complete a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire as well as demographic and health related questions. It is anticipated that Chi-square test will yield a significant relationship between gender and processed meat intake (P

Nutritional Evaluation of Lowering Consumption of Meat and Meat Products in the Nordic Context

Nutritional Evaluation of Lowering Consumption of Meat and Meat Products in the Nordic Context Author :
Release : 2012
Publisher :
ISBN : 9789289337670
File Size : 79.49 MB
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Abstract: The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommended in 2007 that consumer intake of red meat is minimized and processed meat eliminated. The recommendation was based on a systematic review of the available literature on the association between meat consumption and cancer. The recommendation to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption of meat in the Nordic countries is not far from the level WCRF has proposed on an individual level. The study also shows that it will have no significant nutritional consequences to reduce the intake of meat to the recommended, neither when it comes to red meat nor processed meat

Processed Meats

Processed Meats Author : A.M. Pearson
Release : 2012-12-06
Publisher : Springer
ISBN : 1461576857
File Size : 43.13 MB
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Processed Meats, Third Edition reflects the changes taking place in the meat processing industry. This updated edition provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices involved in processing meat and poultry into consumer products. The volume covers a range of topics, from the economics of processing to the industry's recent trends and new developments, including new chapters on spices and low fat processed meat. This current edition includes the composition and nutritive value of raw materials and processed meats, various curing agents, methods of curing, smoking, and industry adaptations influenced by consumer demands for convenience and healthy products. While the majority of this work addresses various meat products, such as sausages, canned meat, sectioned and formed meats, cured and smoked products, and restructured meat products, the volume also discusses operations and formulations. Processed Meats, Third Edition is a unique and valuable text for undergraduate students. In addition, professionals in the meat and poultry industries will benefit from the current information found in this new, single-source guide.

Clinical Nutrition for Oncology Patients

Clinical Nutrition for Oncology Patients Author : Mary Marian
Release : 2009-04-01
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning
ISBN : 9781449633097
File Size : 86.21 MB
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Clincial Nutrition for Oncology Patients provides clinicians who interact with cancer survivors the information they need to help patients make informed choices and improve long-term outcomes. This comprehensive resource outlines nutritional management recommendations for care prior to, during, and after treatment and addresses specific nutritional needs and complementary therapies that may be of help to a patient. This book is written by a variety of clinicians who not only care for cancer survivors and their caregivers but are also experts in the field of nutritional oncology. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Processed Meats

Processed Meats Author : A.M. Pearson
Release : 1996-09-30
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN : 9780834213043
File Size : 54.68 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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Reflecting the changes taking place in the meat processing industry, this updated edition provides a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practices involved in processing meat and poultry into consumer products. The volume covers a range of topics, from the economics of processing to the industry's recent trends and new developments, including new chapters on spices and low fat processed meat. Processed Meats is a unique and valuable text for undergraduate and graduate students. In addition, professionals in the meat and poultry industries will benefit from the current information found in this new, single-source guide.

Associations Between Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers Among British Adults

Associations Between Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers Among British Adults Author : Ditte Hobbs
Release : 2017
Publisher :
ISBN :
File Size : 84.71 MB
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Associations between red and processed meat consumption and cardiometabolic risk markers among British adults. D.A. Hobbs1,2,3*, J.A. Lovegrove1,2,3 and D.I. Givens2,3, 1Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 2Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health and 3Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6APThe consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of colon cancer(1). The aim of this study was to examine the association between diets with varying levels of red meat (RM), processed red meat (PRM) and total red and processed meat (TRPM) with cardiovascular health markers in adults. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from 1068 adults aged 19-64 years old from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 1-4 (2008/09-2011/12)(2). Adults (221 men and 517 women) were classified into tertiles according to RM, PRM and TRPM consumption, with tertile 1 (T1: TRPM 0-41; RM 0-12; PRM 0-12 g /day) and tertile 3 (T3: TRPM 87-344; RM 44-225; PRM 42-284 g/day) representing diets with the lowest and highest intake of RPM, respectively. RM food group included beef, lamb, pork, lamb, burgers and other red meat and PRM included processed red meat and sausages. Intakes were obtained from 4-day diet diaries. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, pulse pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1c, homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-and low-density cholesterol from NDNS were used to determine associations between RM, PRM and TRPM with these markers. ANCOVA was used to detect statistically significant differences between tertiles of RM, PRM and TRPM consumption and cardiometabolic risk markers controlling for age, sex, energy intake (kJ), BMI, social class and smoking status (model 1) and dietary vitamin C (biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake), SFA and total fat intakes (model 2). Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to detect differences between tertiles. Participants with fasted blood glucose above 7 mmol/L or taking medicines known to affect blood analytes were excluded. The diets of participants in the highest tertile of TRPM (T3) were associated with significantly higher concentrations of glucose (P-trend=0.004, P-T2/T1=0.020, P-T2/T3=0.01), CRP (P-trend=0.031, P-T1/T3=0.020) and larger waist circumference (P-trend=0.002, P-T1/T3=0.029) and waist to hip ratio (P-trend=0.005, P-T2/T3=0.004) compared to dietary patterns of participants in the lowest tertile of TRPM (T1) (model 1). When additional adjustments were made (model 2) T3 was associated with higher glucose concentration (P-trend=0.001, P-T2/T1=0.012, P-T2/T3=0.004) and larger waist circumference (P-trend=0.007, P-T1/T3=0.075) and waist to hip ratio (P-trend=0.016, P-T2/T3=0.012) compared to T1. Diets of participants in the highest tertile of PRM (T3) were associated with significantly higher homocysteine (model 1: P-trend=0.027; model 2: P-trend=0.039), glucose (model 1: P-trend=0.013; model 2: P-trend=0.018) and HbA1c concentrations (model 1: P-trend=0.0001; model 2: P-trend=0.0001) compared with T1 of PRM consumption, with T3 being significantly higher (model 2) compared with T1 for homocysteine (P-T1/T3=0.044), glucose (P-T1/T3=0.018) and HbA1c (P-T2/T1=0.001 and P-T2/T3=0.001), respectively. Diets of participants in the highest tertile of RM (T3) were associated with significantly lower pulse pressure compared with T1 (Model 1: P-trend=0.022, P-T1/T3=0.017; model 2: P-trend=0.017, P-T1/T3=0.013). There were no other significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors across tertiles of RM, PRM and TRPM. This analysis suggests that consumption of TRPM (>80 g/day) are associated with higher cardiometabolic risk markers, which was driven by PRM, with RM only associated with lower pulse pressure. This work was supported by the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (AHDB).1. Vieira AR, Abar L, Chan DSM et al. (2017) Ann Oncol 8, 1788-1802.2. Bates B, Lennox A, Prentice A et al. (2017) National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) u2013 results from years 1-4 (combined) of the rolling programme (2008/2009-2011/2012). https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/594361/NDNS_Y1_to_4_UK_report_full_text_revised_February_2017.pdf (accessed August 2017).

Nutritional Evaluation of Lowering Consumption of Meat and Meat Products in the Nordic Context

Nutritional Evaluation of Lowering Consumption of Meat and Meat Products in the Nordic Context Author : Inge Tetens
Release : 2013-01-30
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
ISBN : 9289324651
File Size : 51.13 MB
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The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommended in 2007 that consumer intake of red meat is minimised and processed meat eliminated. The recommendation was based on a systematic review of the available literature on the association between meat consumption and cancer. The recommendation to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption of meat in the Nordic countries is not far from the level WCRF has proposed on an individual level. The study also shows that it will have no significant nutritional consequences to reduce the intake of meat to the recommended, neither when it comes to red meat nor processed meat.

Sustainable Meat Production and Processing

Sustainable Meat Production and Processing Author : Charis M. Galanakis
Release : 2018-10-29
Publisher : Academic Press
ISBN : 0128156880
File Size : 55.13 MB
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Sustainable Meat Production and Processing presents current solutions to promote industrial sustainability and best practices in meat production, from postharvest to consumption. The book acts as a guide for meat and animal scientists, technologists, engineers, professionals and producers. The 12 most trending topics of sustainable meat processing and meat by-products management are included, as are advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat products, techno-functional ingredients for meat products, protein recovery from meat processing by-products, applications of blood proteins, artificial meat production, possible uses of processed slaughter co-products, and environmental considerations. Finally, the book covers the preferred technologies for sustainable meat production, natural antioxidants as additives in meat products, and facilitators and barriers for foods containing meat co-products. Analyzes the role of novel technologies for sustainable meat processing Covers how to maintain sustainability and achieve high levels of meat quality and safety Presents solutions to improve productivity and environmental sustainability Takes a proteomic approach to characterize the biochemistry of meat quality defects

Meat Consumption and Mortality - Results from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition

Meat Consumption and Mortality - Results from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Author : Applied Research Press
Release : 2015-07-28
Publisher : CreateSpace
ISBN : 9781515263456
File Size : 70.48 MB
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Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer.

Muscle Foods

Muscle Foods Author : Burdette C. Breidenstein
Release : 2013-03-09
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN : 1475759339
File Size : 88.12 MB
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Traditionally, in the food industry, there has been a distinction made among meat, poultry, seafood, and game. Meat has historically been defined as the edible flesh of animals. This basically referred only to the red meats, namely, beef, lamb, pork, and veal, including both fresh and processed products as well as variety or glandular meats. It has been recognized more recently that all foods derived from muscle, or muscle foods, have basically the same or similar characteristics in physical and chemical properties. Tberefore, it is logical to exarnine and consider all muscle foods under one cover. Tbis book, therefore, is an attempt to address the various attributes of red meat, poultry, fish, and game under the single heading of muscle foods and to note any differences where they might OCCUT. It is of interest that of the 10 top V. S. meat companies in 1990, 8 of them were dealing with poultry as well as red meats and that 4 of the 10 were also involved with seafoods. Tbis lends impetus to the inclusion of all three in a book such as this. Furthermore, the rapid increase in consumption of poultry meat to approximately 30 kg (65 pounds) per capita and seafoods to 7 kg (16 pounds) per capita compared to beef at 34 kg (75 pounds) and pork at 30 kg (65 pounds), whereas veal and lamb/mutton represent only 0.

Food Business News

Food Business News Author :
Release : 2009-03
Publisher :
ISBN :
File Size : 59.49 MB
Format : PDF
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Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Nutritional Adequacy Among British Adults

Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Nutritional Adequacy Among British Adults Author : Ditte Hobbs
Release : 2017
Publisher :
ISBN :
File Size : 39.39 MB
Format : PDF
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Red and processed meat consumption and nutritional adequacy among British adults. By D.A. Hobbs1,2,3*, J.A. Lovegrove1,2,3 and D.I. Givens2,3, 1Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 2Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health and 3Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6APRed meat is a good source of a number of nutrients such as iron, zinc and B vitamins(1). However, consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with unfavourable health outcomes including an increased risk of colon cancer(2). The aim of this study was to examine the association between diets with varying levels of red meat (RM), processed red meat (PRM) and total red and processed meat (TRPM) with nutritional adequacy in adults. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from 1068 adults aged 19-64 years from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 1-4 (2008/09-2011/12)(3). Adults (221 men and 517 women) were classified into tertiles according to TRPM consumption, with tertile 1 (T1, 0-41 g/day) and tertile 3 (T3, 87-344 g/day) representing diets with the lowest and highest intake of TRPM, respectively. Intakes were obtained from 4-day diet diaries. ANCOVA was used to determine statistically significant differences between tertiles of TRPM, RM and PRM consumption and macro-and micro-nutrient intakes, plasma ferritin and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations (biomarkers of iron status) controlling for age, sex, total energy intake (kJ), BMI, social class and smoking status. Participants with fasted blood glucose above 7 mmol/L or taking medicines known to affect blood analytes were excluded from the statistical analysis. The mean TRPM, PRM and RM consumption was 70.3 (SD 54.0), 36.6 (SD 37.4) and 33.7 (SD 36.3) g/day, respectively. Furthermore, 56% of participants consumed less than SACN recommendations (

Cancer Epidemiology

Cancer Epidemiology Author : Mukesh Verma
Release : 2008-10-27
Publisher : Humana
ISBN : 9781603274913
File Size : 25.36 MB
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Population studies and epidemiology facilitate the discovery of genetic and environmental determinants of cancer and the development of new approaches to cancer control and prevention, therefore they play a central role in the creation of health policies. Cancer Epidemiology compiles areas of research which cover etiological factors or determinants that contribute to the development of cancer and describe the the latest technologies in cancer epidemiology. In Volume 2, Modifiable Factors, leading experts provide chapters on modifiable factors in cancer epidemiology, epidemiology of organ specific cancer, and environmental and life style factors. Although a non-standard volume of the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series, this comprehensive text retains the commitment of the series to collecting the kind of detailed, up-to-date information and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results. Cutting-edge and essential, Cancer Epidemiology allows readers to get the maximum advantage of the methods involved in this exciting and important field.