This detailed study investigates the early decades (1847-1880) of Protestant missionary work in one of the important provincial capitals of China. Missionary activities are examined from the points of view of the missionaries themselves, of the British and American consuls in Foochow, and of the Chinese officials in Foochow and in the Prefectural and District Cities around. The author gives careful consideration to the obstacles to missionary success, including sources of conflict between the missionaries and the Chinese. The Wu-shih-shan incident of 1878 in Foochow is given special attention.
Focusing on the six decades that German Moravian missionaries worked in the British colony of Victoria, Australia, this book enriches understanding of colonial politics and the role of the non-British other in manipulating practice and policy in foreign realms. Central to the transnational nature of the book are questions of identity and of how individuals, and the organisations they worked for, can be seen as both colluders and opposers within nation-state borders and politics. It analyses the ways in which the Moravian missionaries navigated competing agendas within the colonial setting, especially those that impacted on their sense of personal vocation, their practices of conversion, and their understandings of the indigenous non-Christian peoples in the settler society of Victoria.
Japan closed its doors to foreigners for over two hundred years because of religious and political instability caused by Christianity. By 1859, foreign residents were once again living in treaty ports in Japan, but edicts banning Christianity remained enforced until 1873. Drawing on an impressive array of English and Japanese sources, Ion investigates a crucial era in the history of Japanese-American relations the formation of Protestant missions. He reveals that the transmission of values and beliefs was not a simple matter of acceptance or rejection: missionaries and Christian laymen persisted in the face of open hostility and served as important liaisons between East and West.
This work explores the interaction of American Protestant missionaries with Iranians during the 1960s and 1970s. It focuses on the missionary activities of four American Protestant groups: Presbyterians, Assemblies of God, International Missions, and Southern Baptists. It argues that American missionaries’ predisposition toward their own culture confused their message of the gospel and added to the negative perception of Christianity among Iranians. This bias was seen primarily in the American missionaries’ desire to modernize Iran through education and healthcare, and between the missionaries’ relationship with Iranian Christians. Iranian attitudes towards missionary involvement in these areas are investigated, as is the changing American missionary strategy from a traditional method where missionaries had the final say on most matters related to American and Iranian Christian interaction, to the beginnings of an indigenous system where a partnership developed between the missionary and the Iranian Christian.
Precious Memories of Missionaries of Color, Vol. 2 profiles ninety-five black Seventh-day Adventist missionaries from 1892 to 2014 and is a follow up to Carol Hammond's book Precious Memories of Missionaries of Color, which was published in 2008 and featured the profiles of forty-nine families. Author DeWitt S. Williams desired to feature the stories of those not included in the first book, so he compiled a list of all those who had served as missionaries through the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, researched their stories, and wrote about their triumphs, struggles, and everyday experiences in this volume.
In this timely book, Cho provides mission scholars, sending churches, and mission agencies with an understanding of Korean missionaries' burnout recovery process. Her study of Korean missionary burnout recovery included thirty-nine research participants who had experienced burnout in missionary service and who subsequently recovered. Participants reported a variety of physical, emotional, and spiritual symptoms, as well as relational difficulties experienced during burnout. Cho describes how their self-help approach, characterized by independent, religious self-effort, brought only temporary relief. Through self-care, however, they experienced genuine recovery. Self-care that leads to lasting recovery is holistic and grace-based, characterized by a correct understanding of the roles of God and others in their lives and engagement in authentic community for interdependent care. This study also gives insightful recommendations to missionary member care systems, mission agencies, and other sending organizations in an Asian cultural context about how to care for Korean missionaries. It is also intended for counselors of home churches so that they can provide better member care for burned-out missionaries. Lastly, this study advances research into contextually appropriate paradigms and strategies helpful to cross-cultural missionaries in the area of both Korean missionaries and non-Western studies in missionary member care.
Over recent decades, historians have become increasingly interested in early modern Catholic missions in Asia as laboratories of cultural contact. This book builds on recent ground-breaking research on early modern Catholic missions, which has shown that missionaries in Asia cooperated with and accommodated the needs of local agents rather than being uncompromising promoters of post-Tridentine doctrine and devotion. Bringing together some of the most renowned and innovative researchers from Anglophone countries and continental Europe, this volume investigates how missionaries’ entanglements with local societies across Asia contributed to processes of localization within the early modern Catholic church. The focus of the volume is on missionaries’ adaptation to four ideal-typical social settings that played an eminent role in early modern Asian missions: (1) the symbolically loaded princely court; (2) the city as a space of especially dense communication; (3) the countryside, where missionary presence was only rarely permanent; (4) and the household – a central arena of conversion in early modern Asian societies. Shining a fresh light onto the history of early modern Catholic missions and the early modern Eurasian cultural exchange, this will be an important book for any scholar of religious history, history of cultural contact/global history and early modern history in Asia.
Includes the following papers: The Missionary Contribution to China; Science and Salvation in China: The Life and Work of W.A.P. Martin (1827-1916); Protestant Missions in China, 1877-1890: The Institutionalization of Good Works; The Missionary and Chinese Nationalism; The Missionary and China's Rural Problems ; and also an appendix on articles on missionary subjects published in Papers on China.
This study examines one aspect of American women's professionalization and the implications of the cross-cultural dialogue between American woman missionaries and Japanese students and supporters at Kobe College between 1873 and 1909.
Recovering lost voices and exploring issues intimate and institutional, this sweeping examination of Spanish California illuminates Indian struggles against a confining colonial order and amidst harrowing depopulation. To capture the enormous challenges Indians confronted, Steven W. Hackel integrates textual and quantitative sources and weaves together analyses of disease and depopulation, marriage and sexuality, crime and punishment, and religious, economic, and political change. As colonization reduced their numbers and remade California, Indians congregated in missions, where they forged communities under Franciscan oversight. Yet missions proved disastrously unhealthful and coercive, as Franciscans sought control over Indians' beliefs and instituted unfamiliar systems of labor and punishment. Even so, remnants of Indian groups still survived when Mexican officials ended Franciscan rule in the 1830s. Many regained land and found strength in ancestral cultures that predated the Spaniards' arrival. At this study's heart are the dynamic interactions in and around Mission San Carlos Borromeo between Monterey region Indians (the Children of Coyote) and Spanish missionaries, soldiers, and settlers. Hackel places these local developments in the context of the California mission system and draws comparisons between California and other areas of the Spanish Borderlands and colonial America. Concentrating on the experiences of the Costanoan and Esselen peoples during the colonial period, Children of Coyote concludes with an epilogue that carries the story of their survival to the present day.
In this book, one of the world's leading scholars on the history of religion in Africa shows how Christianity has been transformed as it has been adopted by black Africans, from the introduction of Christianity in the seventeenth century to the present. Richard Gray finds that Africans have not meekly accepted monolithic Western practices and interpretations but have appropriated Christian faith for specific needs and added to it insights of their own. "Gray's theological conclusions are fascinating, and the book forms a useful contribution to the study of missions in Africa."-Eugeniah Adoyo, Theological Book Review "Gray's most significant contribution is his essay that compares differing concepts of evil in the cosmologies of Christianity and traditional African religions. This compact, well-written volume has extensive footnotes. It is recommended for specialists, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates."-Choice "A thoughtful and informative book, well worth reading."-Joseph C. McKenna, Theological Studies "Concrete and detailed cases support Gray's lucid account of this transformation in Africa."-Wyatt MacGaffey, American Historical Review "The work of a master historian and demonstrates archival detective work and scholarly analysis at its finest. Anyone interested in the introduction and development of Christianity in Africa will find this book particularly valuable."-Roger B. Beck, History: Reviews of New Books "Christianity in Africa has too often been written about by those who recognize only its sociological consequences. Gray . . . writes . . . with insights that are not found often enough in studies of black Christians and white (and black) missionaries in Africa, and this is welcome."-M. Louise Pirouet, International Journal of the African Historical Society
For missionaries in the twenty-first century, change is necessary in order for them to continue to be strong and viable. "Growing Missionaries Biblically" takes a fresh look at Christian missions and proposes a comprehensive, biblical missionary training program for short- and longterm missions. Its objective is to produce an effective, cross cultural ministry for Africa and, with some modifications, globally. The goal is to provide a postimperial, post-colonial model for training missionaries by looking to biblical guidance on the subject. Author Dr. R. Zarwulugbo Liberty is a native of Liberia, Africa, with biblical, theological, and practical insights for prospective and seasoned missionaries and their supporters. The information he provides can successfully launch and sustain these missionaries in the course of their mission work. In order to accomplish his goals, he proposes the use of bicultural missionaries. A bicultural missionary is one who has studied both his own culture and the culture of the people to be served. This missionary will not equate his or her culture with Christianity and will know and understand the practices of the culture he or she serves that can easily be incorporated and assimilated into Christianity. "Growing Missionaries Biblically" proposes a vital curriculum for missionary preparation for cross-cultural missionary service.
An examination of the life and work of Alexander McCaul and his impact on Jewish-Christian relations In Missionaries, Converts, and Rabbis, David B. Ruderman considers the life and works of prominent evangelical missionary Alexander McCaul (1799-1863), who was sent to Warsaw by the London Society for the Promotion of Christianity Amongst the Jews. He and his family resided there for nearly a decade, which afforded him the opportunity to become a scholar of Hebrew and rabbinic texts. Returning to England, he quickly rose up through the ranks of missionaries to become a leading figure and educator in the organization and eventually a professor of post-biblical studies at Kings College, London. In 1837, McCaul published The Old Paths, a powerful critique of rabbinic Judaism that, once translated into Hebrew and other languages, provoked controversy among Jews and Christians alike. Ruderman first examines McCaul in his complexity as a Hebraist affectionately supportive of Jews while opposing the rabbis. He then focuses his attention on a larger network of his associates, both allies and foes, who interacted with him and his ideas: two converts who came under his influence but eventually broke from him; two evangelical colleagues who challenged his aggressive proselytizing among the Jews; and, lastly, three Jewish thinkers—two well-known scholars from Eastern Europe and a rabbi from Syria—who refuted his charges against the rabbis and constructed their own justifications for Judaism in the mid-nineteenth century. Missionaries, Converts, and Rabbis reconstructs a broad transnational conversation between Christians, Jews, and those in between, opening a new vista for understanding Jewish and Christian thought and the entanglements between the two faith communities that persist in the modern era. Extending the geographical and chronological reach of his previous books, Ruderman continues his exploration of the impact of Jewish-Christian relations on Jewish self-reflection and the phenomenon of mingled identities in early modern and modern Europe.
Have you ever wondered what the difference between the Franciscans and Jesuits is? Have you been curious about how a monk's life differs from a missionary's and about the origins of these traditions? This book explores how four distinct types of spirituality evolved in Christianity over the centuries as a response to various needs in different eras. These all became "schools" of spiritual formation. This book introduces monasticism, mendicancy, apostolic ministry, and missionary life as umbrella categories out of which many religious communities formed. It explores thirteen of these different communities, introducing you to the founders and the original fire that moved each of them to create something new. This book provides historical background and explores the rich legacy of the founders of each of these communities. It vibrantly shows how the story of the church as a whole has been enriched and blessed by these feisty, controversial, and saintly sages whose radical choice to follow the Spirit led them into new terrain and resulted in the emergence of a diversity of forms of spiritual lifestyles. From within this treasure house of Christian riches, we can draw support and inspiration to contribute our own stories and pass on this legacy to those who come after.
The book 'Insights of the Western Missionaries'Legacy in Manipur: Especial reference to Moyon of South East Manipur' is an exposition of the historical, social account and missiological approach carried out by Western Missionaries and others. It also deals how Christianity begins and explores the church history in Manipur, and native leaders initiative in church planting.