This review sets out to describe the types of flame retardants available for compounding into plastics materials, mechanisms of action and uses. This review provides a clear overview of the state-of-the-art of flame retardancy for plastics. It highlights the new developments and the potential problems with legislation, together with the benefits to end users of protection from fire hazards. This review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library.
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has become a common and much favoured separation technique in laboratories in widely varied fields in recent years. Much of the credit for the introduction of this technique into analytical practice at the l 2 end of the 1950s is due to E. Stahl • • This method is simple and is characterized by high separation ability and sufficient sensitivity3; however, some analysts feel that it has passed the peak in its development and will gradually be replaced by the more modem high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This is undoubtedly a very important analytical technique utilizing the specific separa tion properties of a large number of sorbents and the possibility of regulating 4 the flow-rate of the mobile phase by adjusting the pressure • Standardization of the experimental conditions is simpler in HPLC than in TLC, where the activity of the sorbent and flow-rate of the eitlent in the thin layer depend markedly on the relative humidity of the laboratory atmosphere and on the composition of the gaseous phase in the elution chamber. In addition, systems for quantitative detection of the separated ~ones are better developed for HPLC than for classical TLC, where, until recently, cumbersome and often even insufficiently reproducible chemical or gravimetric analysis of the extracts of scraped-off spots or densitometry of the separated zones, located first by pyrolysis or reaction s with suitable detection agents, were the predominant determination methods .
THE FLAME OF TRANSFORMATION TURNS TO LIGHT is a book of poems in traditional ghazal form, the first half begun in Turkey, companion volume to "open form" poems written at a later visit, published in 2006 as Love is a Letter Burning in a High Wind (The Ecstatic Exchange). Visiting the epiphany-inducing tombs of Mevlana Rumi and his spiritual companion Shems in Konya, their baraka bathing the journey, the grave of Turkey's great native Sufi poet, Yunus Emre, and traveling through a land of such subtle spirituality, these poems chronicle an imagistic diary through both interior and exterior countrysides, with the second half continued in the same vein at home in Philadelphia.
Drying processes are among the most energy-consuming operations in industry. Flame spray drying (FSD) is a novel approach to reduce the energy supply needed for the spray drying process. Flame Spray Drying: Equipment, Mechanism, and Perspectives describes FSD technology and current developments in flame techniques and evaluates potential industrial implementation. Details advantages of FSD in terms of energy consumption and reduced drying time Promotes applications of biofuels for the drying process Analyzes the FSD method from CFD modelling to product quality Evaluates potential safety and product degradation risks Provides examples of potential applications of the FSD technique in drying of different materials This book describes an important new technique that is useful to chemical and process engineering researchers, professionals, and students working with drying technologies.
It is commonly assumed that the Counter-Reformation touched Spain only lightly, affecting the religious institutions but not the ordinary Spaniards. Henry Kamen now challenges this view by providing an intimate look at what life was like in one small but distinctive rural Spanish community from the mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth centuries. By examining the Catalan village of Mediona as a microcosm of Spanish society, Kamen shows that in fact the Counter Reformation led to powerful changes in the daily lives, beliefs, and customs of the common people of Catalonia and Spain. Kamen portrays the popular culture of Mediona, studying the shifting habits revealed by its administrative reforms during the Counter Reformation; the place of religious belief within the community; the attempts to change popular festivities and celebrations; the far-reaching innovations in marriage and sexuality; the role of the Inquisition and of the Jesuits; the problem of witchcraft, and the impact of books from the expanding presses of France, Italy, and the Netherlands on local language and ideas. Kamen concludes that the Counter Reformation was in some instances liberating rather than repressive in Mediona and the broader Mediterranean society of which it was part. By contemplating popular religion and culture as it was practiced by ordinary citizens, he offers new insights into an epoch normally studied only in the light of great political events, and he presents a wholly original vision of culture and society in Spain's Golden Age.
This book focuses on the chemistry and applications of flame retardants for polymers and other materials. It starts with a description and types of flame retardants, as well as their properties and chemical structures, to include chlorine- and bromine-containing flame retardants, phosphorus-based flame retardants, nitrogen-based flame retardants, and silicones. Inorganic materials that serve as flame retardants, such as boron-based additives, graphenes, and others are discussed in detail. In addition, the following subjects are discussed in detail: Flame retardant polymers The mechanisms of flame retardants, such as flame cooling, synergetic effects, degradation of flame retardants, and others Other flame retardant compositions, such as dripping inhibitors and smoke suppressants Testing methods for flame retardants, international standards, human health hazards, such as smoke toxicity and problems with wastes Synthesis and fabrication methods, as well as recycling methods The application of flame retardants to the coating material using 3D printing, reactive coating, and bulk addition methods Non-burning comonomers, foams, nanocomposites and bio-based materials Flame retardants with other textiles, such as wool and electrical applications such as batteries.
Polymers have infiltrated almost every aspect of modern technology, as they have wide applications ranging from building insulation and firefighter uniforms to the Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft and electronics packaging. However, common polymers are flammable. Inflammability and thermal insulation properties in polymers are important for specific applications. This book discusses recent advances in developing eco-friendly, flame-retardant, and thermally insulative polymer-based materials. It not only focuses on developments of high-performance flame retardants, but also examines flame retardant behaviors in polymers. Eco-friendly polymers with superior flame retardancy, extraordinary thermal insulation, and excellent mechanical strength will provide new opportunities for existing and future applications.
Book One: Stewards of the Flame When burned-out starship captain Jesse Sanders is seized by a dictatorial medical regime and detained on the colony planet Undine, he has no idea that he is about to be plunged into a bewildering new life that will involve ordeals and joys beyond anything he has ever imagined, as well as the love of a woman with powers that seem superhuman. Still less does he suspect that he must soon take responsibility for the lives of people he has come to care about and the preservation of their hopes for the future of humankind. Book Two: Promise of the Flame Three hundred people, isolated on a raw new planet in the hope of fulfilling a dream, the dream that their psi powers will become the foundation of a culture that can someday shape the future of humankind. If they don’t starve first. If they don’t lose heart in the face of hardships beyond any they imagined. And if their kids can be reared to believe in the dream and advance both their technology and their psi powers from one generation to the next.
In a Bureau of Mines study two-dimensional mathematical equations were solved that describe the transient thermal response of rock dust particle in a cloud of similar particles in a gas flame's preheat zone subject to a radiant field from the approaching flame. The description includes both radiant energy absorbed and emitted by the particle and thermal conduction inside the particle and into the surrounding gas environment moving relative to the particle. Two situations were studied: in one the radiant energy incident on the particle is converted to thermal energy at the particle surface, and in the other the radiant energy is converted to thermal energy uniformly over the volume of the particle.
For ten years, Queen Brieanika (Brie) has ruled over the Draynor dragons in peace even though many still considered her a youngling. But now that peace is threatened when the ancient Grenon dragon line returns to claim the throne they feel was stolen by the youngling Draynor queen. When the larger stronger Grenon leader Saline challenges Brie to a battle to the death in a bid to take the Draynor throne, it seems all hope is lost for the young queen. With one solar year to prepare for the battle to defend her kingdom from Salines terrible plans or die, Brie undertakes a strenuous training schedule. With the help of her cousins Daxen and Mikan, her faithful slayers and sentinels, and her mate Trace, Brie is determined to gain the skills that shell need to win the challenge. If only things were so easy! Throw in a plot to overthrow the system royals, a big deal marriage, and the politics of avoiding a war while proving herself to be a true leader, and our little red dragon-queen heroine has her hands full in this exciting third installment of author J. A. Edwards entertaining Dragons of Draynor series. Hold on tight and come along for the ride as we follow Queen Brieanika and her court on their adventures as they attempt to save the Draynor throne and win the hearts of the dragons they rule.
An unexpected magic event led to the invasion of the human world. Facing the evil and bloodthirsty race of kerdems, human beings fight back for their own survival. In the war with the Kremlins, a human army called the flame regiment was a terror to the flame regiment. But in one expedition, the flame regiment was ambushed by the Kremlin. For the survival of human beings, for the honor of their parents. Chen Yukong led the children of the flame regiment to pick up the flags of their fathers to fight against the invasion of the Kremlin army. In the final battle, Chen Yukong used his life to destroy the space passage of the kerdems into the human world, bringing the dawn of victory for human beings to defeat the kerdems.
The act of prayer has been recognized—by sages and skeptics alike—as a powerful way to enact positive physical, spiritual, and emotional change. Prayer has the power to take us beyond the rational mind, opening our hearts and engaging our souls. It brings us peace and health. Its aim is to uplift our spirits and bring us closer to the divine. In Light the Flame, teacher and poet Andrew Harvey has gathered the 365 prayers that have most influenced his life, offering us a daily reminder of the sacred. Drawing insights from around the world, across religions, and an array of disciplines, Harvey provides inspiration from great spiritual minds like Rumi and Thomas Merton, activists like César Chávez and Mother Teresa, and philosophers like Nietzsche and Voltaire—plus he includes some of his own works. With themes that range from love and loss to unity and transformation, this luminous book will capture your imagination and nourish your soul.
Once again Athelstan must enter the murky world of murder, where nothing is as it seems. February, 1381. London lies frozen in the grip of one of the bitterest winters on record. The ever-rising taxes demanded by the Regent, John of Gaunt, are causing increasing resentment among the city’s poor. The seething unrest boils over into a bloody massacre at a splendid Southwark tavern, The Candle Flame, in which nine people, including Gaunt’s tax collectors, are brutally murdered. The furious Regent orders Brother Athelstan to get to the bottom of the matter. For not only has Gaunt’s treasure trove been stolen, he has reason to believe a French spy is active along the Thames, carefully recording for his masters the state of English war cogs. And a professional assassin, Beowulf, who has sworn vengeance against Gaunt and his minions, also stalks the shadows... An exceptional tale of mystery and the underworld from a master of the genre, perfect for fans of Bernard Cornwell, S G MacLean and C. J. Sansom.
Thirteen-year-old Emily's life is transformed when Pegasus, the mythological winged horse, crashes onto the roof of her building during a New York City blackout and takes her to Olympus where she faces monsters, a corrupt governmental agency, and the quest to keep the Olympic flame burning.
This book compared the use of flame retardant chemicals known as pyroset TPO and TKC in the production of carbon fabrics from cotton precursors. Information about the chemical was collected from the American Cyanamid company, textile and chemical division. Data was also furnished by the test fabric incorporated for the two fabrics it manufacturedmercerize 100 percent cotton sheeting, style #409 and unmercerized 100 percent cotton sheeting, style #409. The percentage of carbon remaining from each sample in all the categories was obtained through carbon analysis conducted by Galbraith Laboratories Incorporated. Percent char data were calculated from data obtained before and after pyrolysis. The results are presented and discussed with the aid of a 2(5) factorial design pattern used for the overall design of the experiment. Personal reflections on how to save the lives of infants and children, even our geriatric parents that are trapped in a burning home, with much higher statistics for rescuing them to safety. More safety resulting in having flame retardant nightwear, even home furnishings and more as time goes on. Common sense, logic, and sensible ideology in our twenty-first century. Creating safety living all around should be a right and our responsibilitya value that we should be well invested in. Research funding in the textile industry and for educators has been seriously almost nonexistent that humanity is still struggling for a safe technology for utilizing materials for public safety. Public trust must be secured by specifying performance of treated fabrics safe from fire and the extinguishing of flames, less toxic to protect and enhance our democratic ideals of freedom living in the western hemisphere. The world is in need of safe discovery for flame retardants, material to be used in active wears, home furniture, establish standard of assessments and accountability measures to be the research for the future. More and continued research is required for the textile industry. Research and more and ongoing research and funding is desperately needed. This is to empower readers and educators and students to bring great and creative ideas and ideals tog textile research back and be fully funded; to encourage companies to give funding for creating perpetual workforce for the future, economic stability, safety, and security without end.