One of the most disturbing problems in American education today is the unequal achievement of children in schools. Few problems have sparked greater concern than the issue of why students from different social origins differ so significantly in their academic performance. This book explores the role played by families and schools in this troubling problem. It employs a social constructionist approach in considering how ascribed characteristics (race, gender, and class) intersect with the daily interactions of teachers and students in classrooms and with the educational practices and structures within schools (tracking, testing, and teacher expectations) to play an exacting role in the construction of success or failure. It suggests that the new student identity that begins to emerge as a result of these processes provides a self-fulfilling prophesy of expectation and belief, which defines how students see themselves as learners and achievers. Through these practices, schooling becomes a crucial factor in the social construction of academic success. The author's final conclusion is inescapable: unequal achievement in school is largely a social construction. But it is a social construction facilitated both by student attributes including gender, race, and class and by the educational structures and policies some schools employ. Because of this undeniable fact, parents, educational practitioners, and policy makers must continue to investigate social policies and practices relative to student abilities and make every effort to understand how they may be related to achievement. Informed by research, they must endeavor to see this power inherent in schooling and the need to effect change.
Why does inequality have such a hold on American society and public policy? And what can we, as citizens, do about it? Inequality in America takes an in-depth look at race, class and gender-based inequality, across a wide range of issues from housing and education to crime, employment and health. Caliendo explores how individual attitudes can affect public opinion and lawmakers' policy solutions. He also illustrates how these policies result in systemic barriers to advancement that often then contribute to individual perceptions. This cycle of disadvantage and advantage can be difficult-though not impossible-to break. "Representing" and "What Can I Do?" feature boxes throughout the book highlight key public figures who have worked to combat inequality and encourage students to take action to do the same. The second edition has been thoroughly revised to include the most current data and to cover recent issues and events like the 2016 elections and the Black Lives Matter movement. It now also includes a brand-new chapter on crime and criminal justice and an expanded discussion of immigration. Concise and accessible, Inequality in America paves the way for students to think critically about the attitudes, behaviors and structures of inequality.
"Presents a unifying theme of physical and psychological sexual health that encourages students to think critically and make healhty decisions wiothin a framework that integrates physiological, psychological, emotional and socail aspects of sexuality." - back cover.
Educational policies explicitly implemented in order to reduce educational gaps and promote access and success for disenfranchised youth can backfire—and often have the unintended result of widening those gaps. In this interdisciplinary collection of case studies, contributors examine cases of policy backfire, when policies don’t work, have unintended consequences, and when policies help. Although policy reform is thought of as an effective way to improve schooling structures and to diminish the achievement gap, many such attempts to reform the system do not adequately address the legacy of unequal policies and the historic and pervasive inequalities that persist in schools. Exploring the roots of school inequality and examining often-ignored negative policy outcomes, contributors illuminate the causes and consequences of poor policymaking decisions and demonstrate how policies can backfire, fail, or have unintended success.
Unequal By Design critically examines high-stakes standardized testing in order to illuminate what is really at stake for students, teachers, and communities negatively affected by such testing. This thoughtful analysis traces standardized testing’s origins in the Eugenics and Social Efficiency movements of the late 19th and early 20th century through its current use as the central tool for national educational reform via No Child Left Behind. By exploring historical, social, economic, and educational aspects of testing, author Wayne Au demonstrates that these tests are not only premised on the creation of inequality, but that their structures are inextricably intertwined with social inequalities that exist outside of schools.
Educational Psychology: Developing Learnersis known for its exceptionally clear and engaging writing, its in-depth focus on learning, and its extensive concrete applications. Its unique approach helps teachers understand concepts by encouraging them to examine their own learning and then showing them how to apply these concepts. The book gives an in-depth understanding of the central ideas of educational psychology, and moves seamlessly between theory and applications, including innumerable concrete examples-video cases, written cases, artifacts, and more-to help the reader connect educational psychology to children and classrooms.
The first major battle over school choice came out of struggles over equalizing and integrating schools in the civil rights era, when it became apparent that choice could be either a serious barrier or a significant tool for reaching these goals. The second large and continuing movement for choice was part of the very different anti-government, individualistic, market-based movement of a more conservative period in which many of the lessons of that earlier period were forgotten, though choice was once again presented as the answer to racial inequality. This book brings civil rights back into the center of the debate and tries to move from doctrine to empirical research in exploring the many forms of choice and their very different consequences for equity in U.S. schools. Leading researchers conclude that although helping minority children remains a central justification for choice proponents, ignoring the essential civil rights dimensions of choice plans risks compounding rather than remedying racial inequality.
The aim of this book is to help teachers become critically informed about the process of teaching and schooling in the United States. This book is designed to actively engage students in the process of developing a personal perspective for themselves of the function of schooling in our society, and of the special responsibilities teachers have to consider the broader implications of the enterprise of formal education as it occurs in this country.
This book brings together the latest research on the policy-making process and theories of policy studies, and applies them to key policy areas. The policy areas examined in the text include: governance, curriculum and standards, accountability, labor relations, finance and school choice. The text examines these policy areas from multiple perspectives, or “lenses,” blending diverse perspectives into a coherent, unified framework consisting of normative, structural, constituent, and technical dimensions. The three parts of the book flow from an introduction of the framework to the policy process to application in policy arenas such as government and finance.
This book presents a unique opportunity to read many original source materials written by authors representing diverse points of view and a broad spectrum of history in the field of education. It offers a personal philosophical perspective on the work of teaching; the function of schools in our society; and the relationships between education and productivity. Unlike most introductions to the profession, the issues raised in this book bring readers face-to-face with themselves and with the challenging dilemmas they will confront as teachers. It provides exceptional coverage of community and the changing social, cultural, linguistic, and ethnic landscape of our society and its impact on schools, children, and teaching. In addition, the book answers the following questions: What are the relationships between culture, society, and education?, What are the dynamics of daily life in schools as institutions in particular organizational and community contexts?, In what ways are gender, language, culture, race, social class, and the relationship between school and work important to education?, and What orientations and strategies can teachers adopt that will enable them to become more transformative educators? For individuals contemplating a career in teaching.
Issues of redistribution and economic justice increasingly dominate the political agenda in South Africa. This study offers a pragmatic and comprehensive analysis of the real options behind the rhetoric, and suggest future policy proposals.
For sophomore/junior level courses in Majority-Minority Relations or Race and Ethnic Relations in departments of sociology and ethnic studies and for college and university courses on diversity. This topically organized text is designed to develop students' understanding of the principles and processes that shape the patterns of relations between racial, ethnic, and other groups in society. Organized by topic, this book provides a more integrated look at the social forces that affect different racial groups.
CSA Sociological Abstracts abstracts and indexes the international literature in sociology and related disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences. The database provides abstracts of journal articles and citations to book reviews drawn from over 1,800+ serials publications, and also provides abstracts of books, book chapters, dissertations, and conference papers.