During the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain's Royal Navy faced foes that included, in addition to American forces, the navies of France, Spain, and the Netherlands. In this operational history of a period that proved to be a turning point for one of the world's great naval powers, David Syrett presents a saga of battles, blockades, great fleet cruises, and, above all, failures and lost opportunities. He explains that the British government severely underestimated the Americans' maritime strength and how that error led to devastating consequences. The seemingly invincible navy failed to muster even one decisive victory during the extensive naval conflict. Noting the complex reasons for British failure in European waters, Syrett lays primary blame at the feet of Britain's political leadership. He describes how Lord North, the first lord of the Treasury and head of government, abdicated control of Britain's military to individual members of the cabinet. Syrett suggests that constant vacillations in policy and strategy, which resulted from power shifts among the cabinet ministers, prevented North's government from formulating a comprehensive wartime strategy or providing the Royal Navy with the strategic guidance to launch a successful campaign. Syrett concludes that Britain's inability to gain naval superiority in European waters had a profound effect on the outcome of the American Revolutionary War. He demonstrates how the Royal Navy's failure to hunt down and destroy American blockade runners allowed Yankee rebels easy access to European arms and munitions. He also shows that the inability of the British to defeat French and Spanish naval power off the Continent gave Bourbon monarchies the means to aid American naval forces and to conduct naval operations against the British in such areas as the West Indies and the Indian Ocean.
Historians in the United States have argued that the ideals of the American Revolution have had an enduring significance outside their own country. The essays in this volume explore how the American Revolution has been constructed, defined and understood by Europeans from the 1770s, illustrating what it has meant in different countries.
The essays in this volume examine the historical place of revolutionary warfare on both sides of the Atlantic, focusing on the degree to which they extended practices common in the eighteenth century or introduced fundamentally new forms of warfare.
Cover -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- List of Illustrations -- Introduction: The American Revolution and the Origins of Democratic Modernity -- 1. First Rumblings -- 2. A Republican Revolution -- 3. Revolutionary Constitutionalism and the Federal Union (1776-90) -- 4. Schooling Republicans -- 5. Benjamin Franklin: "American Icon"? -- 6. Black Emancipation: Confronting Slavery in the New Republic -- 7. Expropriating the Native Americans -- 8. Whites Dispossessed -- 9. Canada: An Ideological Conflict -- 10. John Adams's "American Revolution"--11. Jefferson's French Revolution -- 12. A Tragic Case: The Irish Revolution (1775-98) -- 13. America's "Conservative Turn": The Emerging "Party System" in the 1790s -- 14. America and the Haitian Revolution -- 15. Louisiana and the Principles of '76 -- 16. A Revolutionary Era: Napoleon, Spain, and the Americas (1808-15) -- 17. Reaction, Radicalism, and Américanisme under "the Restoration" (1814-30) -- 18. The Greek Revolution (1770-1830) -- 19. The Freedom- Fighters of the 1830s -- 20. The Revolutions of 1848: Democratic Republicanism versus Socialism -- 21. American Reaction (1848-52) -- Conclusion: "Exceptionalism," Populism, and the Radical Enlightenment's Demise -- Notes -- Bibliography -- Index
From acclaimed historian John Ferling, the story of how Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and James Monroe championed the most radical ideas of the American and French Revolutions. Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and James Monroe were in the vanguard of revolutionary ideas in the 18th century. As founding fathers, they risked their lives for American independence, but they also wanted more. Each wished for profound changes in the political and social fabric of pre-1776 America and hoped that the American Revolution would spark republican and egalitarian revolutions throughout Europe, sweeping away the old monarchical order. Ultimately, each rejoiced at the opportunity to be a part of the French Revolution, a cause that became untenable as idealism gave way to the bloody Terror. Apostles of Revolution spans a crucial period in Western Civilization ranging from the American insurgency against Great Britain to the Declaration of Independence, from desperate engagements on American battlefields to the threat posed to the ideals of the Revolution by the Federalist Party. With the French Revolution devolving into anarchy in the background, the era culminates with the “Revolution of 1800,” Jefferson's election as president. Written as a sweeping narrative of a pivotal epoch, Apostles of Revolution captures the turbulent spirit of the times and the personal dangers experienced by Jefferson, Paine, and Monroe. It reminds us that the liberty we take for granted is ours only because we, both champions and common citizens, have fought for it.
In The Idea of Europe and the Origins of the American Revolution, Dan Robinson presents a new history of politics in colonial America and the imperial crisis, tracing how ideas of Europe and Europeanness shaped British-American political culture. Reconstructing colonial debates about the European states system, European civilisation, and Britain's position within both, Robinson shows how these concerns informed colonial attitudes towards American identity and America's place inside - and, ultimately, outside - the emerging British Empire. Taking in more than two centuries of Atlantic history, he explores the way in which colonists inherited and adapted Anglo-British traditions of thinking about international politics, how they navigated imperial politics during the European wars of 1740-1763, and how the burgeoning patriot movement negotiated the dual crisis of Europe and Empire in the between 1763 and 1775. In the process, Robinson sheds new light on the development of public politics in colonial America, the Anglicisation/Americanisation debate, the political economy of empire, early American art and poetry, eighteenth-century geopolitical thinking, and the relationship between international affairs, nationalism, and revolution. What emerges from this story is an American Revolution that seems both decidedly arcane and strikingly relevant to the political challenges of the twenty-first century.
This book examines the European world before 1789, recounts the history of the revolution in France itself and then explores its monumental impact on European society. The book focusses on the causes of this impact and discusses the levels of thinking, communication, social, political, and economic conditions in France at the time, which combined to make the revolution possible and which were similar to those developments elsewhere in Europe.
The European Union foresaw a united, prosperous Europe, free of military conflict. That view has been muddied by the economic collapse of 2008, the revived aggressiveness of Russia and a refugee crisis that has divided the Union and caused Britain to begin the process of leaving. Although the problems faced by the United States after the American Revolution were different, the forces that threaten to collapse the EU were also present in early America. At the 1789 US Constitutional Convention, the delegates made their system of government stronger. In short, this book presents a Constitution for The Federation of European Nations (FEN) based on the US Constitution but including some areas that appeal to Europeans and excluding those that still cause problems in the US.
Excerpt from Commerce of America With Europe: Particularly With France and Great-Britain; Comparatively Stated and Explained; Shewing the Importance of the American Revolution to the Interests of France, and Pointing Out the Actual Situation of the United States of North-America He was born at the village of Ouarville, near Chatres, in Oreannois, on the 14th of January, 1754. His father was what the French called a Traiteur; that is, keeper of an eating house or an ordinary. He was intended for the profession of the law, and was articled to an attorney for that purpose. But he grew disgusted with the chicane and turpitude he was daily obliged to witness, and therefore, after the five years of the articleship were expired, he left Chatres and went to Paris. An accident one night at the theatre at Paris placed him in the company of an English gentleman. They became intimate, and from this gentleman he obtained some knowledge of the English language; which he afterwards improved by a residence in London. He had received a regular classical education, and acquired, by strict application, a tolerable knowledge of the German, Italian, and Spanish languages, sufficient to consult the authors who have written in those languages. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
The years between the American Revolution of 1776, the French Revolution of 1789 and the European Revolutions of 1848 saw fundamental shifts from autocracy to emerging democracy. It is a vital period in what may be termed 'modernity': that is of the western societies that are increasingly industrial, capitalist and liberal democratic. Unsurprisingly, these years of stress and transition produced some significant reflections on politics and society. This indispensable introductory text considers how a cluster of key thinkers viewed the global political upheavals and social changes of their time, covering the work of: • Edmund Burke * Georg Hegel • Thomas Paine * Alexis de Tocqueville • Jeremy Bentham * Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Lively and approachable, it is essential reading for anyone with an interest in modern history, political history or political thought.
For the Western world as a whole, the period from about 1760 to 1800 was the great revolutionary era in which the outlines of the modern democratic state came into being. It is the thesis of this major work that the American, French, and Polish revolutions, and the movements for political change in Britain, Ireland, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Sweden, and other countries, though each distinctive in its own way, were all manifestations of recognizably similar political ideas, needs, and conflicts.
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