This new revision of a standard work gives a general but comprehensive introduction to positional astronomy. Useful for researchers as well as undergraduates.
Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Springer Verlag) representing the second. The present edition is third one of the book. Although the headings of the chapters and sections are much the same as in the previous editions, it will be found that most of the material is, in fact, new.
This is the second of multiple volumes we plan to publish if the Lord is willing. As I began listening to the sermons and reading the transcripts for this volume, I began to realize the practicality and the focus of Wayne as he challenges his hearers to think and to consider their actions along life's pathway. Wayne has a way of always challenging his audience. I believe all who will read the sermons in this book will find many nuggets of spiritual nourishment and find themselves facing serious spiritual questions in living for Jesus Christ. The messages are truly inspiring!
without an appreciation of what happens in between. The techniques available for the chemical analysis of silicate rocks have undergone a revolution over the last 30 years. However, to use an analytical technique most effectively, No longer is the analytical balance the only instrument used it is essential to understand its analytical characteristics, in for quantitative measurement, as it was in the days of classi particular the excitation mechanism and the response of the cal gravimetric procedures. A wide variety of instrumental signal detection system. In this book, these characteristics techniques is now commonly used for silicate rock analysis, have been described within a framework of practical ana lytical aplications, especially for the routine multi-element including some that incorporate excitation sources and detec tion systems that have been developed only in the last few analysis of silicate rocks. All analytical techniques available years. These instrumental developments now permit a wide for routine silicate rock analysis are discussed, including range of trace elements to be determined on a routine basis. some more specialized procedures. Sufficient detail is In parallel with these exciting advances, users have tended included to provide practitioners of geochemistry with a firm to become more remote from the data production process. base from which to assess current performance, and in some This is, in part, an inevitable result of the widespread intro cases, future developments.
'Earth Then and Now' is a collection of 250 images showing locations around the world as they were and as they are now, with captions explaining the often breathtaking changes that have occurred in just a short amount of time.
This book is a welcome introduction and reference for users and innovators in geochronology. It provides modern perspectives on the current state-of-the art in most of the principal areas of geochronology and thermochronology, while recognizing that they are changing at a fast pace. It emphasizes fundamentals and systematics, historical perspective, analytical methods, data interpretation, and some applications chosen from the literature. This book complements existing coverage by expanding on those parts of isotope geochemistry that are concerned with dates and rates and insights into Earth and planetary science that come from temporal perspectives. Geochronology and Thermochronology offers chapters covering: Foundations of Radioisotopic Dating; Analytical Methods; Interpretational Approaches: Making Sense of Data; Diffusion and Thermochronologic Interpretations; Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf; Re-Os and Pt-Os; U-Th-Pb Geochronology and Thermochronology; The K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Systems; Radiation-damage Methods of Geo- and Thermochronology; The (U-Th)/He System; Uranium-series Geochronology; Cosmogenic Nuclides; and Extinct Radionuclide Chronology. Offers a foundation for understanding each of the methods and for illuminating directions that will be important in the near future Presents the fundamentals, perspectives, and opportunities in modern geochronology in a way that inspires further innovation, creative technique development, and applications Provides references to rapidly evolving topics that will enable readers to pursue future developments Geochronology and Thermochronology is designed for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students with a solid background in mathematics, geochemistry, and geology. Read an interview with the editors to find out more: https://eos.org/editors-vox/the-science-of-dates-and-rates
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to radiogenic andstable isotope geochemistry. Beginning with a brief overview ofnuclear physics and nuclear origins, it then reviews radioactivedecay schemes and their use in geochronology. A following chaptercovers the closely related techniques such as fission-track andcarbon-14 dating. Subsequent chapters cover nucleosyntheticanomalies in meteorites and early solar system chronology and theuse of radiogenic isotopes in understanding the evolution of theEarth’s mantle, crust, and oceans. Attention then turns tostable isotopes and after reviewing the basic principles involved,the book explores their use in topics as diverse as mantleevolution, archeology and paleontology, ore formation, and,particularly, paleoclimatology. A following chapter explores recentdevelopments including unconventional stable isotopes,mass-independent fractionation, and isotopic‘clumping’. The final chapter reviews the isotopicvariation in the noble gases, which result from both radioactivedecay and chemical fractionations.
To this day, there is a great amount of controversy about where, when and how the so-called supercontinents--Pangea, Godwana, Rodinia, and Columbia--were made and broken. Continents and Supercontinents frames that controversy by giving all the necessary background on how continental crust is formed, modified, and destroyed, and what forces move plates. It also discusses how these processes affect the composition of seawater, climate, and the evolution of life. Rogers and Santosh begin with a survey of plate tectonics, and go on to describe the composition, production, and destruction of continental and oceanic crust, and show that cratons or assemblies of cratons became the first true continents, approximately one billion years after the earliest continental crust evolved. The middle part of the book concentrates on supercontinents, beginning with a discussion of types of orogenic belts, distinguishing those that formed by closure of an ocean basin within the belt and those that formed by intracontinental deformation caused by stresses generated elsewhere. This information permits discrimination between models of supercontinent formation by accretion of numerous small terranes and by reorganization of large old continental blocks. This background leads to a description of the assembly and fragmentation of supercontinents throughout earth history. The record is most difficult to interpret for the oldest supercontinent, Columbia, and also controversial for Rodinia, the next youngest supercontinent. The configurations and pattern of breakup of Gondwana and Pangea are well known, but some aspects of their assembly are unclear. The book also briefly describes the histories of continents after the breakup of Pangea, and discusses how changes in the composition of seawater, climate, and life may have been affected by the sizes and locations of continents and supercontinents.
New York magazine was born in 1968 after a run as an insert of the New York Herald Tribune and quickly made a place for itself as the trusted resource for readers across the country. With award-winning writing and photography covering everything from politics and food to theater and fashion, the magazine's consistent mission has been to reflect back to its audience the energy and excitement of the city itself, while celebrating New York as both a place and an idea.
Geochemistry at the surface of the earth is dominated by two somewhat antagonistic forces: chemical reactions which attempt to attain a steady state (equilibrium) and geological movement of materials in time and space which changes the parameters that control chemical equilibrium. Another aspect that is extremely important to earth surface geochemistry is the effect of plants on the chemical and physical stability of materials (soils). Plant systems in fact work against the normal chemical changes (loss of silica, potassium, etc.) and the normal physical changes (stabilizing fine grained materials (clays) in the surface zones to avoid erosion). Biological effects are clearly seen in redox effects in the various parts of the earth surface movement cycle; soil formation, stream transport, sedimentation. This book attempts to outline these different parameters and their interactions as they affect earth surface geochemistry in order to give a better understanding of movement and accumulation of elements at the surface of the earth.