Design in engineering and science has often been inspired by nature. This has been more evident in recent years, after a period during which our civilization thought in terms of taming rather than working in harmony with nature. The consequences of that approach are still with us and have resulted in a world increasingly homogenized, lacking in biodiversity and with increased pollution. Mankind has been slow to learn and even slower to apply the lessons that nature offers, in spite of the urgency of our predicament. This book contains papers presented at the fourth International Conference on Comparing Design in Nature with Science and Engineering . The emphasis of this Volume is on engineering and architectural applications and on biomimetics, reflecting in some measure current interest in finding environmentally friendly solutions which also optimize the use of natural resources. The contributions have been arranged into the following topics: Biomimetics; Shape and Form in Engineering Nature; Nature and Architectural Design; Natural Materials and Surfaces; Complexity; and Education.
The chicken bone you nibbled yesterday and threw away was a high-tech product! Not only that: it was a superlative light-weight design, functionally adapted to its mechanical requirements. No engineer in the world has, as yet, been able to copy this structural member, which is excellently optimized in its external shape and its internal architecture as regards minimum weight and maximum strength. The tree stem on which you recently carved your initials has also, by life-long care for its body, steadily improved its internal and external structure and adapted optimally to new loads. In the course of its biomechanical self-optimization it will heal up the notch you cut as speedily as possible, in order to repair even the smallest weak point, which might otherwise cost it its life in the next storm. This book is dedicated to the understanding of this biomechanical optimization of shape. It is the synthesis of many years of extensive research using the latest computer methods at the Karlsruhe Research Centre to help understand the mechanism of biological self-optimization (adaptive growth) and to simulate it by computer. The method newly developed for this purpose was called CAO (Computer-Aided Optimization). With this method, it is possible to predict the growth of trees, bones and other biological structures from the tiger's claw to the sea urchin's skeleton.
Organised as a dialogue between nature and design, this book explores design ideas, opportunities, visions and practices through relating and uncovering experience of the natural world. Presented as an edited collection of 25 wide-ranging short chapters, the book explores the possibility of new relations between design and nature, beyond human mastery and understandings of nature as resource and by calling into question the longstanding role for design as agent of capitalism. The book puts forward ways in which design can form partnerships with living species and examines designers' capacities for direct experience, awe, integrated relationships and new ways of knowing. It covers: * New design ethics of care * Indigenous perspectives * Prototyping with nature * Methods for new design and nature relations * A history of design and nature * Animist beliefs * De-centering human-centered design * Understanding nature has power and agency Design and Nature: A Partnership is a rich resource for designers who wish to learn to engage with sustainability from the ground up.
Organised as a dialogue between nature and design, this book explores design ideas, opportunities, visions and practices through relating and uncovering experience of the natural world. Presented as an edited collection of 25 wide-ranging short chapters, the book explores the possibility of new relations between design and nature, beyond human mastery and understandings of nature as resource and by calling into question the longstanding role for design as agent of capitalism. The book puts forward ways in which design can form partnerships with living species and examines designers’ capacities for direct experience, awe, integrated relationships and new ways of knowing. It covers: • New design ethics of care • Indigenous perspectives • Prototyping with nature • Methods for new design and nature relations • A history of design and nature • Animist beliefs • De-centering human-centered design • Understanding nature has power and agency Design and Nature: A Partnership is a rich resource for designers who wish to learn to engage with sustainability from the ground up.
In this groundbreaking book, Adrian Bejan takes the recurring patterns in nature—trees, tributaries, air passages, neural networks, and lightning bolts—and reveals how a single principle of physics, the Constructal Law, accounts for the evolution of these and all other designs in our world. Everything—from biological life to inanimate systems—generates shape and structure and evolves in a sequence of ever-improving designs in order to facilitate flow. River basins, cardiovascular systems, and bolts of lightning are very efficient flow systems to move a current—of water, blood, or electricity. Likewise, the more complex architecture of animals evolve to cover greater distance per unit of useful energy, or increase their flow across the land. Such designs also appear in human organizations, like the hierarchical "flowcharts" or reporting structures in corporations and political bodies. All are governed by the same principle, known as the Constructal Law, and configure and reconfigure themselves over time to flow more efficiently. Written in an easy style that achieves clarity without sacrificing complexity, Design in Nature is a paradigm-shifting book that will fundamentally transform our understanding of the world around us.
In Design by Nature: Using Universal Forms and Principles in Design, author Maggie Macnab takes you on an intimate and eclectic journey examining the unending versatility of nature, showing how to uncover nature’s ingenuity and use it to create beautiful and compelling designed communications. Written for designers and creative thinkers of all types, this book will guide you through a series of unexpected a-ha! moments that describe relationships among nature, art, science, technology, and design. Through explanation and example, you will learn about natural processes, consisting of everyday patterns and shapes that are often taken for granted, but that can be used effectively in visual messaging. Explore the principles all human beings intuitively use to understand the world and learn to incorporate nature’s patterns and shapes into your work for more meaningful design. By recognizing and appreciating a broad range of relationships, you can create more aesthetic and effective design, building communications that encompass the universal experience of being part of nature, and that are relevant to a worldwide audience. Teaches how to understand and integrate the essential processes of nature’s patterns and shapes in design Includes key concepts, learning objectives, definitions, and exercises to help you put what you learn into practice Features a foreword by Debbie Millman and reviews and discussions of practice and process by some of the world’s leading designers, including Milton Glaser, Stefan Sagmeister, and Ellen Lupton Includes profiles of street artist Banksy, creative director and author Kenya Hara, and typographical designer Erik Spiekermann
Throughout history, many leading thinkers have been inspired by the parallels between nature and human design, in mathematics, engineering and other areas. Today, the huge increase in biological knowledge, developments in design engineering systems, together with the growth in computer power and developments in simulation modelling, have all made possible more comprehensive studies of nature.Conference topics include the following: Mechanics in nature; Nature and architecture; Natural materials and processes; Solutions from nature; Biomimetics and bio-inspiration; Biocapacity; Education in design and nature; Competition in nature; Biological engineering; Constructional theory; Locomotion in nature; Gravitational biology; Self-sustaining environments.It is these developments which have prompted the reconvening of this international conference on Design and Nature. It is intended that the meeting will bring together researchers from around the world working on a variety of studies involving nature and their significance for modern scientific thought and design.
Origin(s) of Design in Nature is a collection of over 40 articles from prominent researchers in the life, physical, and social sciences, medicine, and the philosophy of science that all address the philosophical and scientific question of how design emerged in the natural world. The volume offers a large variety of perspectives on the design debate including progressive accounts from artificial life, embryology, complexity, cosmology, theology and the philosophy of biology. This book is volume 23 of the series, Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. www.springer.com/series/5775
Adopts a holistic and person-centred approach to caring for dementia sufferers by considering their emotional, psychological and spiritual well-being. Provides comprehensive examples of the wide range of ways a person can connect to nature through indoor and outdoor activities, elements and environments.
This book is ambitiously inter-disciplinary and may be divided into four main sections, defined in terms of the authors themselves. Firstly, there are two contributions by biologists. Secondly, the largest section is by practising artists. Thirdly, there are two engineering-based contributions. Finally, two contributions address some of the historical proponents of colour theory and art. These eleven works, in full colour, form a striking contribution to the commonwealth of colour studies and to a possible unification of Snow's two cultures.Colour and inter-disciplinarity go hand in hand. This so often involves the authors leaving the comfort zone of their original speciality and striving for excellence in another. The personal story of Franziska Schenk is but one good example.It seems that our perceptions of aesthetics and beauty must be very flexible indeed as to find absolute opposites equally fascinating. If so, it goes to show how wonderful are the construction and operation of the human brain. Does psychology win in the end? Does colour lead to a single culture?
Biophilia is the theory that people possess an inherent affinity for nature, which developed during the long course of human evolution. In recent years, studies have revealed that this inclination continues to be a vital component to human health and wellbeing. Given the pace and scale of construction today with its adversarial, dominative relationship with nature, the integration of nature with the built environment is one of the greatest challenges of our time. In this sweeping examination, Stephen Kellert describes the basic principles, practices, and options for successfully implementing biophilic design. He shows us what is—and isn’t—good biophilic design using examples of workplaces, healthcare facilities, schools, commercial centers, religious structures, and hospitality settings. This book will to appeal to architects, designers, engineers, scholars of human evolutionary biology, and—with more than one hundred striking images of designs—anyone interested in nature†‘inspired spaces.
This hand written and illustrated book is a introductory guide to Biomimicry, a beautiful and inspiring field of science that studies the forms, patterns, and functions of the natural world to help solve human problems. This book is a compilation of ideas, examples and design practices from the world's leading Biomimicry resources.
Provides a comprehensive introduction to the common scientific laws of both the natural and engineered worlds. As well as straightforward engineering design and biology, it also features mathematics, physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, biomimetics, medical engineering and history of science. The individual chapters are intended to be personal flashes of illumination, combining authority, inspiration and state-of-the-art knowledge. [Publisher web site].
Written by the chair of the LEED-Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND)initiative, Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design with Natureis both an urgent call to action and a comprehensive introductionto "sustainable urbanism"--the emerging and growing design reformmovement that combines the creation and enhancement of walkable anddiverse places with the need to build high-performanceinfrastructure and buildings. Providing a historic perspective on the standards and regulationsthat got us to where we are today in terms of urban lifestyle andattempts at reform, Douglas Farr makes a powerful case forsustainable urbanism, showing where we went wrong, and where weneed to go. He then explains how to implement sustainable urbanismthrough leadership and communication in cities, communities, andneighborhoods. Essays written by Farr and others delve into suchissues as: Increasing sustainability through density. Integrating transportation and land use. Creating sustainable neighborhoods, including housing, car-freeareas, locally-owned stores, walkable neighborhoods, and universalaccessibility. The health and environmental benefits of linking humans tonature, including walk-to open spaces, neighborhood stormwatersystems and waste treatment, and food production. High performance buildings and district energy systems. Enriching the argument are in-depth case studies in sustainableurbanism, from BedZED in London, England and Newington in Sydney,Australia, to New Railroad Square in Santa Rosa, California andDongtan, Shanghai, China. An epilogue looks to the future ofsustainable urbanism over the next 200 years. At once solidly researched and passionately argued, SustainableUrbanism is the ideal guidebook for urban designers, planners,and architects who are eager to make a positive impact on our--andour descendants'--buildings, cities, and lives.
The Essential Ian McHarg brings together a series of short essays that reveal the full range of Ian McHarg's thoughts on design and nature. Adapted from the comprehensive book of his work, To Heal the Earth, these carefully selected essays provide an ideal reader for undergraduate and graduate students in planning and landscape architecture.
The Culture of Nature in the History of Design confronts the dilemma caused by design’s pertinent yet precarious position in environmental discourse through interdisciplinary conversations about the design of nature and the nature of design. Demonstrating that the deep entanglements of design and nature have a deeper and broader history than contemporary discourse on sustainable design and ecological design might imply, this book presents case studies ranging from the eighteenth to the twenty-first century and from Singapore to Mexico. It gathers scholarship on a broad range of fields/practices, from urban planning, landscape architecture, and architecture, to engineering design, industrial design, furniture design and graphic design. From adobe architecture to the atomic bomb, from the bonsai tree to Biosphere 2, from pesticides to photovoltaics, from rust to recycling – the culture of nature permeates the history of design. As an activity and a profession always operating in the borderlands between human and non-human environments, design has always been part of the environmental problem, whilst also being an indispensable part of the solution. The book ventures into domains as diverse as design theory, research, pedagogy, politics, activism, organizations, exhibitions, and fiction and trade literature to explore how design is constantly making and unmaking the environment and, conversely, how the environment is both making and unmaking design. This book will be of great interest to a range of scholarly fields, from design education and design history to environmental policy and environmental history.