One of the most significant changes of the post-1945 world has been the decline and final dismemberment of European colonial empires in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Pacific and the Caribbean. In 1939, roughly a third of the world's entire population lived under colonial rule. At the end of the century, less than one per cent do so. In this study, each major European overseas colony, rather than being subject to chronological or thematic subdivision, receives separate, extensive and consecutive treatment.
This updated Seminar Study provides an overview of the process of British decolonisation. The eclipse of the British Empire has been one of the central features of post-war international history. At the end of the Second World War the empire still spanned the globe and yet by the mid-1960s most of Britain’s major dependencies had achieved independence. Concisely and accessibly, the book introduces students to this often dramatic story of colonial wars and emergencies, and fraught international relations. Although a relatively recent phenomenon, the end of the British Empire continues to spawn a lively and voluminous historical debate. Dr. White provides a synthesis of recent approaches, specially updated and expanded for this edition, by looking at the demise of British imperial power from three main perspectives the shifting emphases of British overseas policy the rise of populist, anti-colonial nationalism the international political, strategic, and economic environment dominated by the USA and the USSR. The book also examines the British experience within the context of European decolonisation as a whole. Supporting the text are a range of useful tools, including maps, a chronology of independence, a guide to the main characters involved, and an extensive bibliography (specially expanded for the new edition. Decolonisation: the British Experience since 1945 is ideal for students and interested readers at all levels, providing a diverse range of primary sources and the tools to unlock them.
This book aims to fill some of the gaps in historical narrative about labor unions, Nigerian leftists, and decolonization during the twentieth century. It emphasizes the significance of labor union education in British decolonization, labor unionism, and British efforts at modernizing the human resources of Nigeria.
Concise and accessible, this guide provides an overview of the process of British decolonisation. Dr White syntheses recent historical debate by looking at the demise of British imperial power from three main perspectives: the shifting emphases of British imperial policy; the rise of populist, colonial nationalism, and the international political, strategic, and economic environment dominated by the USA and the USSR. The book also positions the British experience within the context of European decolonisation and contains many documents which have only recently become available. Introducing the reader to the key debates it the ideal introductory text on the subject.
This book examines war veterans’ history after 1945 from a global perspective. In the Cold War era, in most countries of the world there was a sizeable portion of population with direct war experience. This edited volume gathers contributions which show the veterans’ involvement in all the major historical processes shaping the world after World War II. Cold War politics, racial conflict, decolonization, state-building, and the reshaping of war memory were phenomena in which former soldiers and ex-combatants were directly involved. By examining how different veterans’ groups, movements and organizations challenged or sustained the Cold War, strived to prevent or to foster decolonization, and transcended or supported official memories of war, the volume characterizes veterans as largely independent and autonomous actors which interacted with societies and states in the making of our times. Spanning historical cases from the United States to Hong-Kong, from Europe to Southern Africa, from Algeria to Iran, the volume situates veterans within the turbulent international context since World War II.
The World Since 1945 traces the major political, economic, and ideological patterns that have evolved in the global arena from the end of World War II to the present day.The sixth edition of this widely acclaimed textbook'thoroughly updated throughout'continues to provide not only the background that students need in order to understand current international relations, but also new material on politics around the world. Among the current topics covered in this edition are the expansion of the European Union, the impasse in Palestinian-Israeli relations, the rightward movement in Russian politics, and the impact of the expanding Chinese economy on trade relations, military power, and the environment. A new chapter is devoted to the global consequences of the September 11 terrorist attacks.Beautifully written and student friendly, The World Since 1945 has made its place as the text of choice in scores of world history and introductory IR courses.Wayne C. McWilliams and Harry Piotrowski are emeritus professors in the Department of History at Towson University.Contents: Introduction. The Origins of the Cold War. The End of World War II and the Dawn of the Nuclear Age. The Cold War Institutionalized. The Cold War in Asia: A Change of Venue. Confrontation and Coexistence. Nationalism and the End of Colonialism. Decolonization in Asia. Decolonization in Africa. The Middle East: The Arab-Israeli Conflict. The Shifting Sands of Global Power. The Communist World After Stalin. The War in Indochina. Detente and the End of Bipolarity. The Third World. Problems of Economic Development in the Third World. Africa. Latin America. The People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Transition to a New Era. Japan, Korea, and East Asian Economic Development. The Globalization of the Economy. The Soviet Union: From Perestroika to the Retreat from Empire. The Nuclear Arms Race. September 11 and Its Consequences. Epilogue: The End of the Post?World War II Era.
This monograph addresses mobility and migrations as contributing phenomena in shaping contemporary Europe after 1945, in connection with decolonisation and the creation of the European Community. The disappearing of the colonial empires caused a large movement of people (former colonizers as well as formerly colonized people) from the extra-European countries to the "Old continent"; while the European integration project encouraged the movement of the citizens within the Community. The book retraces how, in both cases, migrations and mobility impacted the way national communities, as well as the European one, have been defining themselves and their real and imaginary boundaries.
In what ways did economic considerations affect the decision by Britain and France to make their Black African colonies independent? Why were early expectations that independence would lead to rapid and sustained economic development in Africa for the most part disappointed? This title, originally published in 1986, seeks to tackle these two important and strongly debated issues. The main aim and value of the book is to take a broad view of this huge subject, pulling together material on most parts of Black Africa south of the Sahara and north of the Limpopo so that the problem can be seen as a whole. It takes account of a wide range of possible and actual factors which have influenced African economic development, weaving them into a single analysis, including the colonial inheritance, the impact of the fluctuating international economy, policies adopted by African governments and indigenous factors such as climate, drought and human resources. The book is written to be understood without difficulty by non-specialists and is intended to act as an introduction to its subject for university students.
Bringing together for the first time leading historians of European decolonization, this book is a landmark in the comparative analysis of the fall of the European empires, viewed both as a problematic of European policy-making and as a formative experience in the development of new states.
An up-to-date empirical and historiographical overview of the actual political relevance of nationalism and internationalism in post-war Europe. Adopting a largely chronological approach, Gerrits links the historiography of post-war Europe and the major theoretical approaches to nationalism with analysis of key historical developments and events.
This book examines the wartime controversies between Britain and America about the future of the colonial world, and considers the ethical, military, and economic forces behind imperialism during World War II. It concludes that, for Britain, there was a revival of the sense of colonialmission; the Americans, on the other hand, felt justified in creating a strategic fortress in the Pacific Islands while carrying the torch of "international trusteeship" throughout the rest of the world--a scheme that Churchill and others viewed as a cloak for American expansion.
A Companion to Europe Since 1945 provides a stimulating guide to numerous important developments which have influenced the political, economic, social, and cultural character of Europe during and since the Cold War. Includes 22 original essays by an international team of expert scholars Examines the social, intellectual, economic, cultural, and political changes that took place throughout Europe in the Cold War and Post Cold War periods Discusses a wide range of topics including the Single Market, European-American relations, family life and employment, globalization, consumption, political parties, European decolonization, European identity, security and defence policies, and Europe's fight against international terrorism Presents Europe in a broad geographical conception, to give equal weighting to developments in the Eastern and Western European states
This volume looks at the impact on the wider world of the end of the European empires and their replacement by a new international order dominated by East-West rivalries. After surveying the decolonization process, the book looks successively at the different patterns of experience in Southern Africa, South East Asia and India, East Asia and the Pacific, the Middle East, and the Americas. It concludes with a sustained analysis of the International System -- the functioning of international organizations and the global role of money and trade.
This book is an in-depth study of the importnace of the Empire-Commonwealth in the two decades after WWII for Britain's self-image as a great power. By studying a wide range of debates on general and specific imperial problems, the book highlights the "official mind" of decolonization - and of late imperialism.
As the greatest imperial power before 1939 Britain played a leading role in the great post-war shift in the relationship between the West and the Third World which we call 'decolonisation'. But why did decolonisation come about and what were its effects? Was nationalism in colonial societies or indifference in Britain the key factor in the dissolution of the British Empire? Was the decay of British power and influence an inevitable consequence of imperial decline? Did British policies in the last phase of empire reflect an acceptance of decline or the hope that it could be postponed indefinitely by timely concessions? This book aims to answer these questions in a general account of Britain's post-war retreat from empire.
In this account of the Algerian War's effect on French political structures and notions of national identity, Todd Shepard asserts that the separation of Algeria from France was truly a revolutionary event with lasting consequences for French social and political life. For more than a century, Algeria had been legally and administratively part of France; after the bloody war that concluded in 1962, it was other--its eight million Algerian residents deprived of French citizenship while hundreds of thousands of French pieds noirs were forced to return to a country that was never home. This rupture violated the universalism that had been the essence of French republican theory since the late eighteenth century. Shepard contends that because the amputation of Algeria from the French body politic was accomplished illegally and without explanation, its repercussions are responsible for many of the racial and religious tensions that confront France today. In portraying decolonization as an essential step in the inexorable "tide of history," the French state absolved itself of responsibility for the revolutionary change it was effecting. It thereby turned its back not only on the French of Algeria--Muslims in particular--but also on its own republican principles and the 1958 Constitution. From that point onward, debates over assimilation, identity, and citizenship--once focused on the Algerian "province/colony"--have troubled France itself. In addition to grappling with questions of race, citizenship, national identity, state institutions, and political debate, Shepard also addresses debates in Jewish history, gender history, and queer theory.
A masterly synthesis of the history of the contemporary world, The World Since 1945 offers the ideal introduction to the events of the period between the end of the Second World War and the present day. P. M. H. Bell and Mark Gilbert balance a clear narrative with in-depth analysis to guide the reader through the aftermath of the Second World War, the Cold War, decolonization, Détente and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, up to the on-going ethnic strife and political instability of the 21st century. The new edition has been thoroughly revised to fully reflect developments in the history and historiography of the post-war world, and features five new chapters on the post-Cold War world, covering topics including: - The rise and fall of American hegemony - The decline of Europe - The rise of Asia - Political Islam as a global force - The role of human rights The World Since 1945 challenges us to better understand what happened and why in the post-war period and shows the ways in which the past continues to exercise a profound influence on the present. It is essential reading for any student of contemporary history.
Since the outbreak of the present troubles in August 1969, a thriving academic literature on the Ulster problem and its history has developed. Based on the most authoritative texts and informed journal and newspaper commentaries, this revised and updated edition includes new materials on the period as a whole, and an assessment of the developments since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.