After the execution of Socrates in 399 BC, a number of his followers wrote dialogues featuring him as the protagonist and, in so doing, transformed the great philosopher into a legendary figure. Xenophon's portrait is the only one other than Plato's to survive, and while it offers a very personal interpretation of Socratic thought, it also reveals much about the man and his philosophical views. In 'Socrates' Defence' Xenophon defends his mentor against charges of arrogance made at his trial, while the 'Memoirs of Socrates' also starts with an impassioned plea for the rehabilitation of a wronged reputation. Along with 'The Estate-Manager', a practical economic treatise, and 'The Dinner-Party', a sparkling exploration of love, Xenophon's dialogues offer fascinating insights into the Socratic world and into the intellectual atmosphere and daily life of ancient Greece.
An imaginary, extended dialogue with Plato, Socrates, Spinoza and William James presents philosophical ideas that have never been more relevant for Western civilization. Neal K. Grossman discusses how a post-materialist social order can solve the challenges of modern life, and insure our survival.
This book is for the seeker in all of us, the collector of wisdom, and the person who asks, “What if?” from the author of Bonhoeffer, Miracles, and Martin Luther The Greek philosopher Socrates famously said that “the unexamined life is not worth living.” Using this as a starting point, Eric Metaxas created a forum encouraging successful professionals to actively think about life’s bigger questions. Thus, Socrates in the City was born. First presented to standing-room-only crowds in New York City and written by luminaries such as Dr. Francis Collins, Sir John Polkinghorne, and Os Guinness, these original essays grapple with extraordinary topics from “Making Sense out of Suffering” to “Belief in God in an Age of Science.” No question is too big—in fact, the bigger, the better—because nowhere is it written that finding the answers to life’s biggest questions shouldn’t be exciting and even, perhaps, fun.
In this book, first published in 1927, the author presents us with three conversations, fables, that, beautiful in themselves, also have a direct bearing on what is being discussed: Death and the Hereafter; Justice; and the Kingdom of Heaven.
This book examines the Socratic method of elenchus, or refutation. Refutation by its very nature is a conflict, which in the hands of Plato becomes high drama. The continuing conversation in which it occurs is more a test of character than of intellect. Dialogue and Discovery shows that, in his conversations, Socrates seeks to define moral qualitiesmoral essenceswith the goal of improving the soul of the respondent. Ethics underlies epistemology because the discovery of philosophic truth imposes moral demands on the respondent. The recognition that moral qualities such as honesty, humility, and courage are necessary to successful inquiry is the key to the understanding of the Socratic paradox that virtue is knowledge. The dialogues receiving the most emphasis are the Apology, Gorgias, Protagoras, and Meno.
Meno Charmides Laches Lysis 'Do please try to tell us what courage is...' In these four dialogues Plato considers virtue and its definition. Charmides, Laches, and Lysis investigate the specific virtues of self-control, courage, and friendship; the later Meno discusses the concept of virtue as a whole, and whether it is something that can be taught. In the conversations between Socrates and his interlocutors, moral concepts are debated and shown to be more complex than at first appears, until all the participants in the conversations are reduced to bafflement. The artistry as well as the philosophy of these dialogues has always been widely admired. The introduction to this edition explains the course of the four dialogues and examines the importance of Socrates' questions and arguments, and the notes cover major and minor points in more detail. This is an essential volume for understanding the brilliance of the first Western philosopher. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.
Imaginary dialogues in the style of Plato's Dialogues with Socrates leading conversations with people from all walks of life on various topics...
Apology, Crito, and Phaedo of Socrates By Plato transl. Benjamin Jowett The Apology of Socrates by Plato is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates presented at his trial for impiety and corruption in 399 BC. Specifically, the Apology of Socrates is a defence against the charges of "corrupting the young" and "not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, but in other daimonia that are novel" to Athens. Crito is a dialogue by Plato. It depicts a conversation between Socrates and his wealthy friend Crito regarding justice, injustice, and the appropriate response to injustice. Socrates thinks that injustice may not be answered with injustice, and refuses Crito's offer to finance his escape from prison. This dialogue contains an ancient statement of the social contract theory of government. Phædo or Phaedo, also known to ancient readers as "On The Soul", is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period. The Phaedo, which depicts the death of Socrates, is also Plato's fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher's final days, following Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito. In the dialogue, Socrates discusses the nature of the afterlife on his last day before being executed by drinking hemlock. Each dialogue contains insights into Ancient Greek thought, and the culture of the society as a whole. All three of these texts use ordinary conversations as a means of conveying and evolving individual ideas. It is within these early texts that Socrates demonstrates his manner of gaining insight via asking questions - this Socratic method, whereby Socrates maintains an impression of ignorance - was to define the thought of Plato.ApologyIn this dialogue, Socrates makes his case to the Athenian people at his trial. Passionately arguing against the charges of impiety levied upon him, the philosopher uses logic, reason and his natural gifts of speech in attempting to convince the crowd against sentencing him to death. While unsuccessful, the margin of the vote was narrow - it is now that Socrates is taken to the cells, where his final conversations are to take place.CritoWhen speaking to Crito, a man from a wealthy local family, Socrates advances a number of points about justice and injustice. After Crito declares his admiration for Socrates peace of mind and collectiveness in the face of his death sentence, the two commence a philosophical debate.Together the pair draw a number of comparisons with society in order to reach a definition of what is just and unjust in the context of human living. The text makes a point of noting Crito's attempts at convincing Socrates to escape from prison and thus his death sentence - although such an escape might be arranged, Socrates refuses on the grounds that it is his duty as a citizen to face the death penalty.PhaedoOne of the most famous dialogues of Plato, in Phaedo we witness the final philosophic discussions which Socrates partakes in before dying. His friends and family are variously present, until the final death sentence - that of drinking a poison solution of hemlock - is carried out. The topics here range from the form and essential immortality of the soul, the nature of learning and memory, and the nature of life. It is here that Plato, with Socrates as his principle character, advances a number of philosophic arguments and ideas which were to evolve later in his writings. An iconic text, the death of Socrates remains one of the most pivotal and popularly known events in the history of philosophy.
In this collection of essays, Eva Brann talks with readers about the conversations Socrates has with his fellow Athenians. She shows how Plato's dialogues and the timeless matters they address remain important to us today. From introductory pieces on the Republic, the Phaedo, and the Sophist, to an account of the less well known Charmides, each essay starts where Plato starts, without presupposing a critical theory. In the title essay's brilliant account of the Republic, Brann demonstrates its central importance in Plato's work. Other essays consider Plato's notion of time; discuss how to teach Plato to undergraduates; and contend that a thoughtful text-based study of Plato can have a very personal impact on a reader. Encouraged to befriend the dialogues, readers will join in the great Socratic conversations.
This book offers a new interpretation of Plato's early and middle dialogues as the expression of a unified philosophical vision. Whereas the traditional view sees the dialogues as marking successive stages in Plato's philosophical development, we may more legitimately read them as reflecting an artistic plan for the gradual, indirect and partial exposition of Platonic philosophy. The magnificent literary achievement of the dialogues can be fully appreciated only from the viewpoint of a unitarian reading of the philosophical content.