From the moment of conception until death rhythm is as much part of our structure as our bones and flesh. Most of us are dimly aware that we fluctuate in energy, mood, well-being, and performance each day, and that there are longer, more subtle behavioral alterations each week, each month, season, and year. Through studies of biological rhythms, many aspects of human variability - in symptoms of illness, in response to medical treatment, in learning, and job performance - are being illuminated. Already some of our changes of mood and of vulnerabilities to stress and illness, our peaks of strength and productivity, can be anticipated. Moreover, by the end of this decade, much that is still considered unpredictable in health and human performance may become foreseeable through research into the nature of biological time cycles. As a result, timing promises to become an important factor in preventive health programs and medicine. For example, since the effects of drugs depend in part upon the time of administration, timing may be used as a critical aspect of treatment. Evidence now suggests, too, that X-ray treatments, surgery, and even psychotherapy are influenced in their outcome by timing. Research on biological rhythms also promises to have an impact on problems of work performance - including accidents and absenteeism; a new concept of scheduling as part of health may one day influence the determination of work-shifts among transportation and communication personnel, and members of various professions. No corner of medicine - from the laboratory testing of new drugs and procedures to clinical and public health programs - is likely to remain untouched by the new explorations into biological rhythms. These studies are being made by scientists working with support from the National Institute of Mental Health, who have now joined forces with members of various disciplines ranging from biology to entomology and mathematics. The results of their work are provided in this comprehensive report. Contained here is compelling evidence that man is constructed not only of matter, but that he is temporally organized - and that this organization carries with it significant implications for man's mental and physical health. The National Institute of Mental Health has been fortunate to support some of the very few researchers who could lead the way in this new field, thus taking an initiative in an area that is still not widely acknowledged. It is hoped that this report - part of a continuing effort to analyze and evaluate the Institute's programs - will draw the attention of both scientists and laymen to an exciting and promising area of scientific activity. Bertram S. Brown, M.D. Director National Institute of Mental Health
Dr. Phyllis Zee has put together an expert panel of authors on the topic of the Science of Circadian Rhythms. Articles include: Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythm Regulation, Effect of Light and Melatonin and other Melatonin Receptor Agonists on Human Circadian Physiology, Consequences of Circadian Disruption on Cardiometabolic Health, Consequences Circadian Disruption on Neurologic and Psychiatric Health, Aging and Circadian Rhythms, Circadian and Homeostatic Regulation of Sleep and Performance, Circadian disruption in Psychiatric Disorders, and more!
Biological Rhythms, Mood Disorders, Light Therapy, and the Pineal Gland combines the experience of psychiatric clinicians, psychiatric residents, medical students, endocrinologists, psychoimmunologists, neurobiologists, neuroanatomists, and other health professionals to present the most recent progress made in the study of the pineal gland and its relationship to mood disorders, including * major depressive disorders* winter depression* bipolar disorders* premenstrual syndrome (PMS)* sleep disorders The use of bright light to treat these disorders is also discussed.
This book resolves to bridge the communication gap between research and clinical practice for circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Beginning with a scientific background on biological timekeeping, opening chapters describe the crucial nature of maintaining delicate temporal organization of physiological and molecular events within the body. Following this are discussions on circadian physiology and methods of circadian assessments. Subsequent chapters then relay comprehensive information regarding the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-defined circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs), specifically discussing etiology and epidemiology, but focusing on evidence-based treatment data. Concluding discussions provide guidance for the application of light therapy and discuss future roles for optimized lighting environments. Nuanced and market-demanded, Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: An Evidence-Based Guide for Clinicians and Investigators is an invaluable resource for Sleep Medicine clinicians, circadian researchers, and other interested parties.
Circadian rhythms, the biological oscillations based around our 24-hour clock, have a profound effect on human physiology and healthy cellular function. Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease is a wide-ranging foundational text that provides students and researchers with valuable information on the molecular and genetic underpinnings of circadian rhythms and looks at the impacts of disruption in our biological clocks in health and disease. Circadian Rhythms opens with chapters that lay the fundamental groundwork on circadian rhythm biology. Section II looks at the impact of circadian rhythms on major organ systems. Section III then turns its focus to the central nervous system. The book then closes with a look at the role of biological rhythms in aging and neurodegeneration. Written in an accessible and informative style, Circadian Rhythms: Health and Disease,will be an invaluable resource and entry point into this fascinating interdisciplinary field that brings together aspects of neuroscience, cell and molecular biology, and physiology.
This book sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms that generate circadian rhythms. It examines how biological rhythms influence physiological processes such as sleep, hormone synthesis and secretion, immunity, kidney function, the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, and the digestive system. Clinical implications are considered while exploring the impact of rhythms on neuropsychiatric disorders and chronotherapy’s potential for reducing cardiovascular risk. Offering a cross-section of expertise in both basic and translational (bench-to-bedside) research, this book serves as a guide for physicians and scientists who wish to learn more about the impact of circadian rhythms on physiological processes in health and disease.
Sleep and wakefulness are fundamental behavioral and neurobiological states that characterize all higher animals, including human beings. Concise yet comprehensive, Sleep Disorders and Psychiatry, the latest volume in American Psychiatric Publishing's popular Review of Psychiatry Series, presents the cumulative experience of 12 experts who talk about what sleep is and why sleep is essential to maintaining good health, summarizing the major categories of sleep disorders and detailing how virtually every psychiatric disorder and a wide variety of medical illnesses adversely affect sleep. Sleep Disorders and Psychiatry is the ideal companion to busy psychiatric clinicians because it is Comprehensive, covering all information of particular relevance to psychiatric clinicians. Enhanced by numerous tables and illustrations that make it easy to understand and reference while "on the go" during everyday practice. Clearly structured and easy to understand, with chapters organized according to the major categories of sleep disorders most likely to be encountered in psychiatric clinical practice. The fascinating introduction discusses the functions of sleep and the consequences of sleep deprivation, including the complex neurobiology of circadian rhythms, sleep and wakefulness, the clinical assessment and management of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders, and the pros and cons of tools for taking an accurate history. Each of the six subsequent chapters in Sleep Disorders and Psychiatry follows the same format by detailing the definitions and clinical description, epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis, and treatment for a major category of sleep disorder: insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy and syndromes of central nervous system-mediated sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, parasomnias, and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Further, Sleep Disorders and Psychiatry provides psychiatrists with the tools necessary to embark upon exciting collaborations with specialists from other areas of clinical medicine (psychologists, pulmonologists, neurologists and surgeons). Given the importance of behavioral and psychopharmacologic interventions in managing sleep disorders, psychiatrists can often make valuable contributions to the care of medically ill patients with these conditions. Abundantly referenced and illustrated, Sleep Disorders and Psychiatry is the ultimate practical resource for busy clinicians interested in the broad and growing field of sleep disorders.
During the past decade many review papers and books have been devoted to descriptions and analyses of biological rhythms (chronobiology) in plants and animals. These contributed greatly to demonstrating the impor tance of bioperiodicities in living beings in general. However, the practi cal aspects of chronobiology with regard to human health and improving the treatment of disease have not yet been a major focus of publication. One of our aims is to establish the relevance of biological rhythms to the practice of medicine. Another is to organize and convey in a simple fashion information pertinent to health- and life-science professionals so that students, researchers, and practitioners can achieve a clear and pre cise understanding of chronobiology. We have limited scientific jargon to unavoidable basic and well-defined terms and we have emphasized illus trative examples of facts and concepts rather than theories or hypotheti cal mechanisms. This volume is divided into seven chapters, each of which is compre hensive in its treatment and includes an extensive bibliography. The book is organized to serve as a textbook and/or reference handbook of modem applied chronobiology. Chapter 1 describes the historical development of chronobiology and reviews why, when, and how major concepts were introduced, accepted, and transformed.
As the title suggests, and unlike other existing books on sleep medicine, Neuroendocrine Correlates of Sleep/Wakefulness will be devoted primarily to endocrine regulation of the behavioral state control. It will address a wide spectrum of sleep./wakefulness phenomena (both animals and humans), including pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. From molecular biology to applied clinical therapy, sleep research has been transformed in the last few years from a research backwater to an important interdisciplinary field. Anyone who regularly reads the literature on sleep, biological rhythms, or neuroendocrinology is aware that one of the subspecialties within sleep medicine, the neuroendocrine correlates of sleep/wakefulness, has in particular experienced a growth rate that is even faster than that of the field as a whole. To a significant extent this has been due to the introduction of new research technologies. The widespread adoption of a range of new methods in sleep research has opened a window into activities at the cellular and molecular level, which previously had been tightly closed. Consequently these activities are being characterized with a degree of precision and sensitivity that is without precedent. This volume invites the reader to explore the new vistas that have been opened onto the neuroendocrine frontier of sleep medicine. The editors have selectively identified a number of key articles having a citation frequency, which is considerably above the norm or which otherwise have contributed importantly to defining the neuroendocrine perspective. This new volume on Neuroendocrine Correlates of Sleep/Wakefulness is an up-to-date resource of research summaries and reviews written by major contributors to the fields of sleep, biological rhythms and neuroendocrinology. Its coverage is broad and its basic and clinical science reviews are detailed. In this volume, an international team of experts discuss their latest ideas, concepts, methods, and interpretations with supporting examples. This volume is intended for advanced students and specialists in psychobiology, neuroscience, neuroendocrinology, and psychiatry but might also be interest to anyone concerned with understanding the Neuroendocrine correlates of sleep/wakefulness. The contributions are directed more towards providing an integrated view of the field from the perspective of the authors, rather than being a compendium of recent results. The intent is to provide a reference book for recent and future workers in this and related areas of medicine and biology. Each topic in this volume has received the attention of a panel of authors who have responded to our request to review and place into perspective the major issues, which will undoubtedly confront newcomers to the field. The topics dealt with in Neuroendocrine correlates of Sleep/wakefulness are both diverse and complex. The editors hope that this volume will provide an authoritative summary of important issues in the neuroendocrine correlates of sleep/wakefulness. We also hope that it will motivate new researchers to join the quest for solutions to the problems that have been identified by our contributing authors.