Napoleon began his military career as an artillery cadet and artillery played a fundamental part in all his great battles. Until the Napoleonic Wars artillery had been seen merely as a supporting arm to the infantry, but Napoleon changed everything. He massed his guns in huge batteries to blast holes in his opponent’s line. He even used the artillery to charge the enemy, the gunners galloping up to the enemy to open fire at pointblank range. Napoleon’s opponents did not all follow suit, choosing other tactical deployments. As a result, the Napoleonic era, more than any that preceded or followed it, was one of fascinating artillery maneuvers and critical actions that changed the course of many of the key battles. As the Prussian Field Marshal Blucher once observed, “Against Napoleon you needed guns – and lots of them!” The Napoleonic Wars was also a time of innovation, with the introduction of shrapnel shells and military rockets. This book will examine the artillery arms of all sides from ‘muzzle to butt plate’. As well as the significant artillerymen of the period, the innovators, scientists, and innovators, military and civilian – individuals such as Robins, Belidor, Gribeauval and his colleagues, Maritz, Liechtenstein and his collaborators, as well as the du Teil brothers – will all be examined, as will the important battles and sieges, significant memoirs and documents, and artillery terms that soon became part of the military lexicon. Written by the renowned historian Kevin F. Kiley, this will be the definitive book on the subject and will cover all aspects of artillery in the Napoleonic Wars.
Color paintings based on period portraits complement analyses of the major campaigns of the Seven Years War and descriptions of the uniforms worn by various armies in famous battles
The British Army that faced Napoleon in the Peninsula was small by continental standards, but it consistently out-fought larger French armies, never losing a major open-field action. Its cavalry and artillery were standard; but its infantry achieved unique results, as their tactics were brought to a peak of professional perfection by Wellington. Using contemporary instruction manuals, first-hand accounts and in-depth analysis of individual actions, this book examines exactly how Wellington was able to convert a rabble of volunteers and criminals into a well-oiled, highly disciplined and professional war-winning machine. With a detailed look at the effective use of terrain, line rather than column manoeuvres and fortification assaults, Philip Haythornthwaite reveals the crucial tactics of Wellington's army, illustrated with comprehensive maps, images and full-colour artwork.
During the long and costly conflict known as the Great Northern War [1700-1721], Peter the Great and his newly formed Russian army, which was modelled on western European lines, defeated their Swedish counterparts, who were generally regarded as being the finest troops in Europe. Angus Konstam examines the development, equipment and organisation of the Russian army following the death of Peter the Great, and describes its emergence from three decades of experimentation and political involvement as a major military power during the Seven Years War. This first of two volumes covers the Russian infantry, with its companion, Men-at-Arms 298, focusing on the cavalry.
By the end of the eighteenth century, the French dominated the world of science. And although science and politics had little to do with each other directly, there were increasingly frequent intersections. This is a study of those transactions between science and state, knowledge and power--on the eve of the French Revolution. Charles Gillispie explores how the links between science and polity in France were related to governmental reform, modernization of the economy, and professionalization of science and engineering.
In The Seven Years’ War: Global Views, Mark H. Danley, Patrick J. Speelman, and sixteen other contributors reach beyond traditional approaches to the conflict. Chapters cover previously-understudied aspects of the war in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Western Hemisphere.
The Seven Years War has been described as the first global conflict in history. It engulfed the Euro-Atlantic world from 1756 to 1763, and engaged the energies of European cabinets as never before. More than previous conflicts, the Seven Years War involved a variety of approaches to war, and taxed the military, material and moral resources of the powers involved. Drawing on a diverse array of archival, printed primary and secondary sources, The Seven Years War: A Transatlantic History covers the war’s origins, its conduct on land and at sea, its effects on logistics and finance, its interactions with domestic politics, its influence on international relations and its approach to peace. The book highlights the role of personality, alongside the enduring importance of communication, misperception and understanding. In so doing, it endeavours not merely to chronicle the war’s events, but to situate them in the context of mid-eighteenth century warfare, finance, politics and diplomacy. The Seven Years War will be of great interest to students of the European history, American history, maritime history, diplomatic and military history.
Cover -- Half Title -- Title Page -- Copyright Page -- Dedication -- Table of Contents -- List of Maps -- List of Tables -- List of Figures -- Acknowledgements -- Abbreviations -- Glossary -- Introduction: The belated great power -- Modest Origins - the Habsburg Monarchy During the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century -- 1. The domestic foundations -- The question of terminology -- The territorial and administrative configuration of the Habsburg Monarchy -- Limited absolutism: the provincial Estates -- Economy -- Finances -- 2. The primacy of power politics -- The instruments of foreign policy -- From domestic to foreign policy: the Habsburgs and the Reich after 1648 -- Geopolitical challenges and responses -- 3. Home defence -- Feudal levy and peasant militia in the Austro-Bohemian lands -- Hungary -- The Military Border (Militärgrenze) -- The contribution of the Reich -- 4. The standing army -- Origins and growth -- The High Command -- The officer corps -- Military administration -- Artillery -- Technical branches -- The guards -- Weaponry -- Military industries -- Uniforms -- Quarters and provisions -- Soldiers' families and the baggage train -- Military justice -- Religion -- Medical service and disabled soldiers -- Tactics, strategy and the primacy of logistics -- Austria's 'age of heroes' 1683-1733 -- 5. The Turkish War 1683-1699 -- The Kuruc rebellion -- The siege of Vienna -- The Habsburg counter-offensive -- 6. The Nine Years War 1689-1697 -- The 'reunions' -- The French invasion of Germany -- From stalemate to peace -- 7. The War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714 -- The Spanish inheritance -- The Italian peninsula -- Germany -- The Spanish Netherlands -- Spain -- The peace treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt and Baden 1713-1714 -- The Rákóczy rebellion 1703-1711 -- 8. Renewed expansion -- The Turkish War of 1716-1718 -- Trade expansion.
Frederick the Great was not renowned as a great artillery enthusiast, however he did recognise the importance of artillery and greatly expanded the arm. Frederick was also aware of the value of strong fortifications as barriers against the manoeuvres of enemy armies, and as places of security for troops and magazines; some of these were of vital significance in the survival of Prussia during the Seven Years' War. This fascinating volume by Philip Haythornwaite examines the artillery, engineers and others specialist troops of Frederick the Great's army.
Upon France’s defeat of the vaunted Prussian army at the Battle of Valmy in 1792, German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe remarked, “From this place and from this day forth commences a new era in the world’s history.” The pronouncement proved prescient, for this first major victory emboldened France’s revolutionary government to end the monarchy and establish the first French Republic—with dramatic consequences for the wars that soon roiled the continent. In nine essays by leading scholars, European Armies of the French Revolution, 1789–1802 provides an authoritative, continent-wide analysis of the organization and constitution of these armies, the challenges they faced, and the impact they had on the French Revolutionary Wars and on European military practices. The volume opens with editor Frederick C. Schneid’s substantial introduction, which reviews the strategies and policies of each participating state throughout the wars, establishing a clear context for the essays that follow. Drawing on the latest research and thought, each contributor focuses on the army of a particular power: France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, Britain, Spain, the German principalities, the Italian states, and the Ottoman Empire. Their essays examine the system, tactics, operations, and strategies that each army adopted and developed in the Revolutionary Wars. The authors explore the conflicts’ wider influence on these policies and practices, along with significant battles and actions. Unique in its approach and reach, this volume offers a thorough and closely observed view of the composition, scope, and purpose of the European armies at the turn of the nineteenth century. It enhances and extends our insights into how the military powers of the post–French Revolutionary era—and thus, the era itself—took shape.
This book, originally published in 1969, discusses the development of the complex relationships between science and technology and warfare from the Renaissance to the 1960s. The nature of warfare has always been largely determined by contemporary technology. Instances of technological change undertaken for the sake of military advantage have also been relatively common in history. The relationships between science and warfare however have been much more variable and ambiguous. "Science, Technology, and Warfare" requires a fourth term to be complete "Management " because the primary military innovator never has been the scientist, technologist, or soldier, but rather the administrative "organizer of victory."
This second volume (see MAA 297) by Angus Konstam on the Russian Army of the Seven Years War concentrates on the cavalry, both the regular troops and irregular forces, considering their composition, nature and effectiveness. It also outlines the state of the Russian train of artillery, which was seen as the premier branch of the army and dominated Russian military doctrine throughout the 18th century. As a result of reforms to the, the Russians entered the war with Prussia somewhat wrong footed. The ability of the army to recover from this in the crucible of war is a major part of this story.